Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacologic Variation Between Different Estrogen Products

@article{OConnell1995PharmacokineticAP,
  title={Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacologic Variation Between Different Estrogen Products},
  author={Mary Beth O’Connell},
  journal={The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology},
  year={1995},
  volume={35}
}
  • M. O’Connell
  • Published 1 September 1995
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Due to the complex nature of endogenous and exogenous hormone concentrations, formation, and metabolism and assay complexity, the pharmacokinetics of estrogens are difficult to study. Oral estrogens have minimal systemic bioavailability (2% to 10%) due to gut and liver (first‐pass) metabolism. High concentrations of estrone are achieved with oral administration, whereas higher concentrations of estradiol are generally achieved after percutaneous absorption. Although vaginal products (such as… 

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