Human embryonic stem cell-derived test systems for developmental neurotoxicity: a transcriptomics approach
Kinetic analysis of valproate (VPA) disposition in pregnant rats was performed. A dose-dependent saturable plasma elimination was observed in both the control and pregnant rats. Saturation was more remarkable in the pregnant rats and this was assumed to be due to the decreased hepatic extraction by metabolism. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a two-compartment open model with a Michaelis-Menten-type elimination process from the central compartment. In the pregnant rats, the calculated values of Km and Vmax decreased significantly, by one-half of those of the control rats, whereas no significant difference was observed in distribution rate constants (k12, k21) and volumes of distribution (V1, Vdss) between two groups of rats. Furthermore, the hepatic extraction of VPA in the control and pregnant rats was investigated in order to explain nonlinear pharmacokinetics of VPA. The values of the hepatic extraction ratio in the control and pregnant rats were 39.9 and 22.4% at the steady state concentration of approximately 20 micrograms/ml, respectively. The extraction ratios in the pregnant rats were lower than those of the control rats. This fact may be one of the reasons why the elimination of VPA in the pregnant rats is more susceptible to saturation.