The pharmacological treatment of mood disorders has reduced their morbidity and improved mental health for millions of individuals worldwide, favouring a considerable reduction of the direct and indirect costs caused by these common pathologies. Unfortunately, not all individuals benefit, and 30-40% of patients do not show a complete response to treatment. Efficient clinical predictors are not available, although genetic factors are thought to play a substantial (but complex) role in the antidepressant response. Pharmacogenetics, which investigates the influence of genetic features on the pharmacological response, has gained increasing attention and holds great promise for clinical psychiatry. Here, a brief overview is provided on the various pharmacogenetic studies published to date that analyse the commonest treatments for depression: antidepressants, sleep deprivation and lithium salts.