Pharmacodynamics of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives 3. Inhibition of ovulation

  title={Pharmacodynamics of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives 3. Inhibition of ovulation},
  author={Carlo Bastianelli and Manuela Farris and Elena Rosato and Ivo Brosens and Giuseppe Benagiano},
  journal={Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology},
  pages={1085 - 1098}
ABSTRACT Introduction: Following a historical overview, the ovulation-inhibiting effect of various orally administered estrogen-progestin combinations (combined oral contraceptives [COCs]) are examined for their components alone or in the various combined formulations. Special emphasis is given to products containing natural estrogens. Areas covered: Inhibition of ovulation with progestins alone; estrogens alone; various progestins in combination with ethinyl estradiol; various progestins in… Expand
Pharmacodynamics of combined estrogen–progestin oral contraceptives: 4. Effects on uterine and cervical epithelia
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A safety evaluation of current medications for adult women with the polycystic ovarian syndrome not pursuing pregnancy.
There is no solid evidence supporting that the use of combined oral contraceptives in women with PCOS increases the risk of cardiovascular or thromboembolic events compared with the general population. Expand
Case-based discussion on the implications of exogenous estrogens in hemostasis and thrombosis: the obstetrician's view.
  • A. James
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  • 2019
This is the obstetrician's view on 3 different clinical scenarios involving bleeding and thrombotic disorders. In the first scenario, an 18 year old with a history of heavy menstrual bleeding sinceExpand
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  • 2021
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Estrogens in oral contraceptives: historical perspectives.
Clinical studies with continuous low-dose progestin only formulations have demonstrated that their effectiveness in inhibiting ovulation is substantially lower than that of sequential or combination type preparations. Expand
Estrogens in oral contraceptives: historical perspectives.
Clinical studies with continuous low-dose progestin only formulations have demonstrated that their effectiveness in inhibiting ovulation is substantially lower than that of sequential or combination type preparations, and the predicted mortality from cardiovascular disease in OC users confirmed. Expand
Characteristics and metabolic effects of estrogen and progestins contained in oral contraceptive pills.
The lower impact of E2-based combinations on metabolic surrogate markers may result in an improved safety profile, but only clinical outcomes are relevant to assess the risk. Expand
Pharmacological and endocrine profiles of gestodene.
Modulation by gestodene of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH)-stimulated gonadotropin release in vitro and in vivo in a rat model system indicated that gestodenes is some three times as biologically active as levonorgestrel. Expand
Comparative studies of the ethynyl estrogens used in oral contraceptives. II. Antiovulatory potency.
A synergism exists between these two classes of compounds insofar as their antiovulatory effect is concerned, thus explaining the high contraceptive effectiveness observed with very-low-dose combination regimens. Expand
Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration
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  • 2005
This review comprises the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of natural and synthetic estrogens and progestogens used in contraception and therapy, with special consideration of hormoneExpand
New knowledge in the physiology of hormonal contraceptives.
The present review addresses some of the new knowledge regarding the physiology and mechanisms of action of hormonal contraceptives, including oral contraceptives, intravaginal rings, long-term contraception, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and antagonists, and antiprogestins. Expand
Ovarian function is effectively inhibited by a low-dose triphasic oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel.
Ovarian function is as effectively inhibited by a low-dose triphasic preparation as by a higher, standard-dose OC containing the same steroids, according to these data. Expand
It is concluded that in constructing an oral contraceptive agent of the progestogen-estrogen type these effects of the progestogen may be lost with the consequence that estrogen effects predominate. Expand
Endogenous estradiol metabolism during treatment with oral contraceptives.
OCs containing norethisterone acetate, dienogest or levonorgestrel did not have a negative effect on estradiol metabolism, i.e. they did not elicit a higher D-ring metabolism, which is considered to increase breast cancer risk. Expand