Pharmacodynamics of Oestrogens and Progestogens

  title={Pharmacodynamics of Oestrogens and Progestogens},
  author={Bruno de Ligni{\`e}res and S D Silberstein},
  pages={200 - 207}
The ovaries cyclically secrete estradiol and progesterone. Cyclic ovarian estradiol secretion is associated with a bone-saving and vascular protection effect. Endogenous progesterone does not modify the vasodilator effect of oestrogens. At physiological concentrations, the natural sex steroids have low antigonadotropic effects. More potent synthetic derivatives with more antigonadotropic effects were synthesized in the 1950s. After the menopause, there is no longer any need to use hormonal… 

Pharmacokinetics of estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone after transbuccal administration to postmenopausal women

The transbuccal route is a novel approach to provide therapy for the management of menopause-related symptoms of postmenopausal women without the need to resort to conjugated or synthesized hormones, and may overcome the poor or erratic systemic availability associated with other routes of administration.

An evaluation of relugolix/estradiol/norethindrone acetate for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroids in premenopausal women

The combination of relugolix/E2/NETA is an encouraging, well-tolerated and noninvasive pharmacological option for UFs patients, and should be used with hormonal add-back therapy (E2+ NETA) to avoid induced hypoestrogenic side effects, importantly bone mineral density loss.

Intranasal hormone replacement therapy.

The intranasal route is, therefore, innovative for the delivery of natural sex steroids in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy and demonstrates that it is safe, effective, and acceptable to post menopausal women.

Headache and female hormones: what you need to know

There is no compelling evidence that postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy either decreases or increases stroke risk and there is no contraindication to the use of oral contraceptives in women with migraine in the absence of migraine aura or other risk factors.

Effect of Combined Oral Contraceptives on Breast Epithelial Proliferation in Young Women

COC users have increased proliferative activity at the beginning of the menstrual cycle, which may relate to the increased risk of breast cancer that has been associated with COCs.

Effect of estradiol-17β on serum mineral concentrations of female Japanese quail

The aim of this study was to test the effect of E2 on serum mineral concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and to establish the relationships between estradiol-17β (E2) and blood mineral levels.

Oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk: modification by NAD(P)H:quinone oxoreductase (NQO1) genetic polymorphisms.

  • J. FowkeX. Shu W. Zheng
  • Biology, Medicine
    Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • 2004
It is suggested that the OC and breast cancer association depends on the ability to invoke protection from catechol estrogens, and the NQO1 C609T polymorphism seems functionally relevant.

Progesterone improves cognitive performance and attenuates smoking urges in abstinent smokers

Effect of estradiol-17β on follicle-stimulating hormone secretion and egg-laying performance of Japanese quail.

  • H. Çiftçi
  • Medicine, Biology
    Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience
  • 2012
Results show that serum FSH concentration was not increased even when slightly suppressed by subcutaneous injection of 0.1 or 0.2 mg E2, but it significantly increased eggshell strength probably via the increase in Ca and P utilizations.



Molecular mechanisms of steroid hormone action

The ability of oestrogens and androgens to stimulate the growth of a number of endocrine cancers is well established and several endocrine therapies are widely used to reduce the availability of the

Effects of oral and transdermal estrogen/progesterone regimens on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in postmenopausal women. A randomized controlled trial.

Oral estrogen/progesterone replacement therapy may result in coagulation activation and increased fibrinolytic potential, whereas opposed transdermal estrogen appears without any substantial effects on hemostasis.

Medroxyprogesterone interferes with ovarian steroid protection against coronary vasospasm

It is concluded that medroxyprogesterone in contrast to progesterone increases the risk of coronary vasospasm.

Pharmacology of conjugated oestrogens.

Cardiovascular risk and use of estrogens or estrogen-progestagen combinations.

The risk of cardiovascular complications from combined oral contraceptives and estrogens were assessed in 986 women from 3 Northern California communities and the effects of estrogens appeared more prevalent in Mexican-American women possibly because of their greater obesity.

Progestogens and cardiovascular disease. A critical review.

  • T. Clarkson
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • 1999
The attenuating effect medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has on the cardiovascular benefits of postmenopausal estrogen treatment and may be largely limited to MPA and not shared with other progestogens.

Oral contraceptives and metabolic risk markers for coronary heart disease.

It was concluded that reducing the progestin dose and changing the progestsin type effectively reduce the adverse impact of OCs on metabolic risk for CHD, and the use of OC formulations without adverse effects on risk profile is indicated.