Strategies to address low drug solubility in discovery and development.
The objective of this review is to summarize recent findings on the safety profiles of three natural cyclodextrins (alpha-, beta- and gamma-CDs) and several chemically modified CDs. To demonstrate the potential of CDs in pharmaceutical formulations, their stability against non-enzymatic and enzymatic degradations in various body fluids and tissue homogenates and their pharmacokinetics via parenteral, oral, transmucosal, and dermal routes of administration are outlined. Furthermore, the bioadaptabilities of CDs, including in vitro cellular interactions and in vivo safety profiles, via a variety of administration routes are addressed. Finally, the therapeutic potentials of CDs are discussed on the basis of their ability to interact with various endogenous and exogenous lipophiles or, especially for sulfated CDs, their effects on cellular processes mediated by heparin binding growth factors.