Phantom limb sensation

  title={Phantom limb sensation},
  author={Ann Woodhouse},
  journal={Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology},
  • A. Woodhouse
  • Published 1 January 2005
  • Medicine, Physics
  • Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
1. Phantom limb pain and sensations are common in amputees. The present paper defines phantom limb pain, stump pain and phantom limb sensation and then gives an overview of the incidence and characteristics of the phenomena. 

Phantom Limb Phenomena in Cancer Amputees

The prevalence of phantom pain and correlated conditions such as phantom sensations and stump pain in a population of cancer patients who had undergone limb amputation was determined.

Spinal Cord Stimulation for Intractable Pain Following Limb Amputation

The long‐term effectiveness of SCS for amputation‐related pain with ongoing after‐care is reviewed by assessment of all such cases managed over 20 years in the Neurostimulator Clinic at the Royal London Hospital.

A review of current theories and treatments for phantom limb pain

An overview of the proposed mechanistic theories as well as an overview of various treatments for phantom limb pain are provided.

Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain by Cryoneurolysis of the Amputated Nerve

The identification of a peripheral etiology may help match patients to an appropriate therapy, and cryoanalgesia may result in long‐term relief of PLP.

Spinal Cauda Equina Stimulation for Alternative Location of Spinal Cord Stimulation in Intractable Phantom Limb Pain Syndrome: A Case Report

A case of successful pain management with spinal cauda equina stimulation following the failure of SCS in the treatment of intractable phantom limb pain is reported.

Supernumerary phantom limbs in spinal cord injury

Overall, the clinical relevance of supernumerary phantom limbs is not clear, specific treatment protocols have not yet been developed, and the underlying neural mechanisms are not fully understood.

The phenomenon of synaesthesia in phantom limbs — therapeutic treatment

The causes of phantom pains are described and the possible treatment techniques, namely physiotherapy and unconventional therapeutic methods, are discussed.

Cutaneous sensitivity in unilateral trans-tibial amputees

Interestingly, the authors saw increased residual limb skin sensitivity in the individual with the traumatic amputation, which may be related to cortical reorganisation, which is known to occur following amputation and would support similar findings observed in upper limb amputees.



Phantom limbs and the concept of a neuromatrix

  • R. Melzack
  • Medicine, Biology
    Trends in Neurosciences
  • 1990

Phantom limb pain: elusive, yet real.

  • A. WilliamsS. Deaton
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Rehabilitation nursing : the official journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
  • 1997
Issues related to sensory experiences associated with phantom body parts and the treatment of pain associated with those experiences are addressed.

Phantom-limb pain as a perceptual correlate of cortical reorganization following arm amputation

A very strong direct relationship is reported between the amount of cortical reorganization and the magnitude of phantom limb pain (but not non-painful phantom phenomena) experienced after arm amputation, indicating that phantom-limb pain is related to, and may be a consequence of, plastic changes in primary somatosensory cortex.

Phantom sensations generated by thalamic microstimulation

Thalamic stimulation in amputees with a phantom limb could evoke phantom sensations, including pain, even in regions containing neurons responsive to tactile stimulation of the stump, consistent with the findings from animal experiments.

Phantom limbs and neural plasticity.

By tracking perceptual changes and changes in cortical topography in individual patients, systematic psychophysical testing and functional imaging studies on patients with phantom limbs provide 2 unique opportunities to demonstrate neural plasticity in the adult human brain.

Perceptual correlates of massive cortical reorganization.

Patients after upper limb amputation are studied to explore the phenomenon of cortical areas corresponding to that limb becoming responsive to stimuli applied to the face following long-term deafferentation of one upper limb.