Phantom-limb pain as a perceptual correlate of cortical reorganization following arm amputation

@article{Flor1995PhantomlimbPA,
  title={Phantom-limb pain as a perceptual correlate of cortical reorganization following arm amputation},
  author={Herta Flor and Thomas Elbert and Stefan Knecht and Christian Wienbruch and Christo Pantev and N. Birbaumers and Wolfgang Larbig and Edward Taub},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1995},
  volume={375},
  pages={482-484}
}
ALTHOUGH phantom-limb pain is a frequent consequence of the amputation of an extremity, little is known about its origin1-4. On the basis of the demonstration of substantial plasticity of the somatosensory cortex after amputation5 or somatosensory deafferentation in adult monkeys6, it has been suggested that cortical reorganization could account for some non-painful phantom-limb phenomena in amputees and that cortical reorganization has an adaptive (that is, pain-preventing) function2,5,7,8… Expand
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TLDR
Findings suggest that cortical reorganization and phantom limb pain might have a causal relationship and methods designed to alter corticalorganization should be examined for their efficacy in the treatment of phantom limbPain. Expand
Cortical plasticity as a basis of phantom limb pain: Fact or fiction?
TLDR
It is suggested that cortical reorganization, preserved limb function and peripheral factors interact to create the various painful and nonpainful aspects of the phantom limb experience. Expand
Primary motor cortex changes after amputation correlate with phantom limb pain and the ability to move the phantom limb
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It is demonstrated for the first time that motor capacities of the phantom limb correlate with post-amputation reorganization, and that this reorganization is not limited to the face and hand representations but also includes the proximal upper-limb. Expand
Induction of cortical plasticity reveals the mechanism of the phantom limb pain and develops novel treatment
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The hypothesis that a training to use brain–machine interface (BMI) based on magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals will induce some cortical plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex and modulate the phantom limb pain is tested. Expand
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TLDR
It is concluded that after limb amputation, the relationship between plastic changes occurring in the sensorimotor cortex and phantom pain seems to be more complex than previously believed. Expand
The Modification of Cortical Reorganization and Chronic Pain by Sensory Feedback
  • H. Flor
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback
  • 2002
TLDR
It is shown that cortical plasticity related to chronic pain can be reduced by behavioral interventions that provide feedback to the brain areas that were altered by somatosensory pain memories. Expand
Functional Reorganization of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex of a Phantom Limb Pain Patient.
TLDR
Novel evidence is provided for a possible neuroplasticity of S1 of the amputated limb: in an amputee with long-lasting phantom limb pain, the sensitivity of S 1 to pain-related and amputated-limb-related context was greatly enhanced. Expand
[Visualisation of phantom- and backpain using imaging techniques. Implication for treatment].
TLDR
A model of phantom limb pain is presented that assigns an important role to pre-existing chronic pain and the modulation of plasticity and phantom limbPain by anesthesiological manipulation, the use of NMDA receptor antagonists and opioids is presented. Expand
Functional Expansion of Sensorimotor Representation and Structural Reorganization of Callosal Connections in Lower Limb Amputees
TLDR
These results demonstrate a functional remapping of S1 in lower limb amputees and indicate that amputation of a limb also induces changes in the cortical representation of the intact limb, compatible with the hypothesis that phantom sensations may depend on inhibitory release in the sensorimotor cortex. Expand
Using a BCI Prosthetic Hand to Control Phantom Limb Pain
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the BCI training controls the phantom limb pain depending on the induced sensorimotor plasticity, and this results strongly suggest that a reorganization of the sensorsimotor cortex is the underlying cause of phantom limbPain. Expand
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