Phantom limb, phantom pain and stump pain in amputees during the first 6 months following limb amputation

  title={Phantom limb, phantom pain and stump pain in amputees during the first 6 months following limb amputation},
  author={Troels Staehelin Jensen and B{\o}rge Krebs and J{\o}rn Theil Nielsen and Peter Vestergaard Rasmussen},

Non‐painful phantom limb phenomena in amputees: incidence, clinical characterstics and temporal course

It is suggested that mechanisms both in periphery, spinal cord and brain participate in generating the phantom limb percept, and both the duration and frequency of phantom limb phenomena declined significantly.

Painful and nonpainful phantom and stump sensations in acute traumatic amputees.

Stump pain and stump sensation predominate traumatic amputees' somatosensory experience immediately after amputation; phantom pain and phantom sensations are often long-term consequences of amputation.

Phantom limb, residual limb, and back pain after lower extremity amputations.

The results support the importance of looking at pain as a multidimensional rather than a unidimensional construct and suggest that back pain after lower extremity amputation may be an overlooked but very important pain problem warranting additional clinical attention and study.

Phantom pain: natural history and association with rehabilitation.

Phantom pain decreased with time, was present equally in traumatic and vascular amputees, and was related to the amount of preoperative pain (P < 0.005).

Chronic phantom sensations, phantom pain, residual limb pain, and other regional pain after lower limb amputation.

Phantom limb and residual limb pain are common after a lower limb amputation and for most, the pain is episodic and not particularly disabling, however, for a notable subset of participants the pain may be quite disabling.

Postamputation pain: studies on mechanisms.

The present doctoral thesis confirmed and expanded the findings by others that several mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of phantom pain.



Phantom limbs and related phenomena in recent traumatic amputations

Stump pain occurred in 43 percent of soldiers who had traumatic amputations and was associated with phantom pain in 54 percent of these, suggesting phantom pain probably results from peripheral or spinal cord mechanisms, rather than from more rostra1 mechanisms.

Factors determining the persistence of phantom pain in the amputee.

  • C. Parkes
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of psychosomatic research
  • 1973

Phantom limb pain: implications for treatment of pathologic pain.

It is proposed that a portion of the brainstem reticular formation exerts a tonic inhibitory effect on transmission at all levels of the somatic projection system, which would underlie prolonged pain and spread of trigger zones.

A survey of lower-limb amputees: prostheses, phantom sensations, and psychosocial aspects.

This survey was to obtain information which would be helpful in evaluating various services delivered to amputees, and to determine whether the patients felt these services were adequate, and whether the patient was happy with his artificial limb.

The Phantom Limb*

It is the impression that phantom pain is merely the interpretation of a phantom sensation by certain individuals who show psychopathology.


It is found that in a considerable proportion of gunshot wounds of nerves there is principally burning pain, or at least that this is the prominent symptom, while in slight injuries of nerves from compression or contusions, the other forms of pain are more apt to prevail.

On the Origin of Pain Associated with Amputation

Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson lost an arm at the battle of Tenerife in 1797. He wrote to a friend that he could still sense his missing arm and that he took this as evidence for the existence of his

[Pain phenomena in amputees. Clinical features, evaluation of tests and possibilities of treatment (author's transl)].

The clinical phenomena in amputees can be clearly divided into phantom pain, painful stumps and stump pulsation, which is described as a basis for the differing assessments of treatment.