Phantom Limb Pain: Theories and Therapies

@article{Weeks2010PhantomLP,
  title={Phantom Limb Pain: Theories and Therapies},
  author={Sharon R. Weeks and Victoria C. Anderson-Barnes and Jack W. Tsao},
  journal={The Neurologist},
  year={2010},
  volume={16},
  pages={277-286}
}
Background and Objective:Since the beginning of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of military service members with single and multiple-limb amputations. Phantom limb pain (PLP) frequently develops in these individuals. As a result, identifying the best methods to treat PLP is critical. The review highlights areas of inquiry related to phantom pain, with a focus on PLP. Review Summary:This review discusses phantom sensations and phantom pain… 
A review of the management of phantom limb pain: challenges and solutions
TLDR
No decisions can be made for the first-line management of PLP, as the level of evidence is too low, and robust studies on homogeneous populations, an understanding of what amputees consider a meaningful reduction in PLP and agreement of whether pain intensity is the legitimate therapeutic target are urgently required.
Phantom limb pain: a review of pharmacological management
TLDR
It is difficult to draw definitive conclusions on the pharmacological management of PLP based on current available evidence, but combination treatment of agents with proven efficacy in PLP deserves a closer examination in a controlled study against a placebo as well as single drug therapy.
The Pathophysiology of Phantom Limb Pain
TLDR
By literature analysis, this paper discussed a few theories of PLP pathophysiology, articulating their ground-breaking perspectives and factors that are omitted, and states that people should attach more importance to the exploration of the correlations of different theories.
Mirror therapy for the alleviation of phantom limb pain following amputation: A literature review
TLDR
This review aimed to assess the current best evidence for using mirror therapy to treat PLP in patients with amputation and found no current consensus as to the effectiveness of mirror therapy.
Phantom Limb Pain: Mechanisms and Treatment Approaches
TLDR
This paper attempts to review and summarize recent research relative to the proposed mechanisms of and treatments for phantom limb pain.
[Psychotherapies for the Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain].
Phantom Limb Pain
TLDR
Pain after amputation of a limb is a common symptom and is separated into two types of pain including residual limbPain (RLP) and phantom limb pain (PLP), which are clinically defined as the perception of pain or discomfort in a limb that no longer exists.
Mind-Body Interventions for Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain in Persons with Amputation
TLDR
The weight of existing findings indicates that a mind-body approach to PLP pain management is promising and that specific methods may offer either temporary or long-term relief, either alone or in combination with conventional therapies.
Pain management in new amputees: a nursing perspective.
TLDR
The authors aimed to improve the management of patients undergoing amputation at their institution, by ensuring accurate and holistic assessment, the selection of suitable interventions through critical analysis and synthesis of available evidence, and the appropriate evaluation and adaptation of treatment plans, to ensure patients achieved their individualised goals.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 150 REFERENCES
Painful and nonpainful phantom and stump sensations in acute traumatic amputees.
TLDR
Stump pain and stump sensation predominate traumatic amputees' somatosensory experience immediately after amputation; phantom pain and phantom sensations are often long-term consequences of amputation.
Is phantom tooth pain a deafferentation (neuropathic) syndrome? Part II: Psychosocial considerations.
  • J. Marbach
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral pathology
  • 1993
TLDR
This study has not demonstrated that phantom tooth pain cases are characterized by a specific premorbid personality, and suggestions for obtaining informed consent of prospective endodontic patients are suggested.
Phantom pain: natural history and association with rehabilitation.
TLDR
Phantom pain decreased with time, was present equally in traumatic and vascular amputees, and was related to the amount of preoperative pain (P < 0.005).
The mystery of phantom pain: Growing evidence for psychophysiological mechanisms
TLDR
The direct, and much of the indirect, evidence supporting the existence psychophysiological mechanisms for phantom limb pain is reviewed, and the expression of phantom pain does appear to be influenced by psychological mechanisms similarly to the ways other chronic pain conditions are influenced.
Prevalence and characteristics of chronic phantom limb pain among American veterans. Results of a trial survey.
TLDR
There was no relationship between reasons for amputation, use of prosthesis, pain sensitivity, demography, treatment history, stump problems, phantom sensations, or other demographic variables and presence of severity of phantom pain.
Phantom Erection after Amputation of Penis. Case Description and Review of the Relevant Literature on Phantoms
  • C. Fisher
  • Medicine
    Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences / Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
  • 1999
TLDR
The development of the phantom is attributed to activity in the deafferented parietal sensory cortex, and general features of limb phantoms after amputation are reviewed including a résumé of recent studies of cortical reorganization.
Pain ‘memories’ in phantom limbs: review and clinical observations
...
1
2
3
4
5
...