Phage Therapy of Coral White Plague Disease: Properties of Phage BA3

@article{Efrony2008PhageTO,
  title={Phage Therapy of Coral White Plague Disease: Properties of Phage BA3},
  author={Rotem Efrony and Ilil Atad and Eugene Rosenberg},
  journal={Current Microbiology},
  year={2008},
  volume={58},
  pages={139-145}
}
The bacteriophage BA3 multiplies in and lyses the coral pathogen Thalassomonas loyana. The complete genome of phage BA3 was sequenced; it contains 47 open reading frames with a 40.9% G + C content. Phage BA3 adsorbed to its starved host in seawater with a k = 1.0 × 10−6 phage ml−1 min−1. Phage therapy of coral disease in aquarium experiments was successful when the phage was added at the same time as the pathogen or 1 day later, but failed to protect the coral when added 2 days after bacterial… 

Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus

TLDR
It is demonstrated that bacteriophage YC has the potential to treat coral disease outbreaks caused by the bacterial pathogen V. coralliilyticus, making it a good candidate for phage therapy treatment of coral disease.

Phage therapy of the white plague-like disease of Favia favus in the Red Sea

TLDR
Phage BA3, specific to the coral pathogen Thalassomonas loyana, inhibited the progression of the white plague-like disease and transmission to healthy corals in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea and is the first successful treatment for a coral disease in the sea.

Therapeutic Potential of a New Jumbo Phage That Infects Vibrio coralliilyticus, a Widespread Coral Pathogen

TLDR
It is shown that BONAISHI is able to mitigate V. coralliilyticus infections, making it a good candidate for phage therapy for coral disease.

Novel T4 bacteriophages associated with black band disease in corals.

TLDR
These OTUs associated with BBD samples suggest the presence of bacteriophages that infect members of the cyanobacteria-dominated BBD community, and thus have potential roles in BBD pathogenicity.

Phage-bacteria network analysis and its implication for the understanding of coral disease.

TLDR
It is suggested that phages have a role in controlling stress-associated bacteria, and that networks can be utilized to select potential phages for mitigating detrimental bacterial growth in phage therapy applications.

Characterization of a new phage, termed ϕA318, which is specific for Vibrio alginolyticus

TLDR
Genetic analysis indicated that phage ϕA318 is not a thermostable direct hemolysin producer, and the results suggest that the MOI should be higher than 0.1 to prevent the chance of hemoly sin production by the bacteria before they are lysed by the phage.

Generating viral metagenomes from the coral holobiont

TLDR
This paper presents the first protocol for isolating, purifying and amplifying viral nucleic acids from corals based on mechanical disruption of cells, and demonstrates that this mechanical-based method profiles a greater diversity of DNA and RNA genomes, including virus groups such as Retro-transcribing and ssRNA viruses, which are absent from metagenomes generated via chemical-based methods.

Viruses: contributors to and mitigators of black band disease in corals

TLDR
Whether viruses that infect bacteria (bacteriophages) are involved in the virulence of the main BBD-associated cyanobacteria and progression of BBD is examined, showing that bacteriophage taxa are part of the BBD microbial consortium.

The versatile nature of coral-associated viruses.

TLDR
The hypothesis is put forward that coral-associated viruses, depending on the environmental conditions might either reinforce coral stability or conversely fasten their decline, allowing viruses to regulate, circumstantially, both coral symbionts and surrounding pathogens.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 23 REFERENCES

Phage therapy of coral disease

TLDR
It was demonstrated that each of these diseases could be controlled by the pathogen-specific phage and suggest that phage therapy has the potential to control the spread of infectious coral diseases.

A novel Vibrio sp. pathogen of the coral Pocilloporadamicornis

TLDR
The data suggest that the presence of V. coralyticus YB, even in low numbers, in seawater surrounding a coral reef will lead to tissue destruction of P. damicornis, when seawater temperatures rise.

Relationship of Vibrio Species Infection and Elevated Temperatures to Yellow Blotch/Band Disease in Caribbean Corals

TLDR
Evidence indicates that YBD affects primarily the symbiotic algae rather than coral tissue, and does not appear to produce the same physiological response formerly observed in corals undergoing temperature-related bleaching.

Microbial diseases of corals and global warming.

TLDR
It is discovered that Vibrio coralyticus is the aetiological agent for bleaching the coral Pocillopora damicornis in the Red Sea and will become a fertile area of research in the interface between microbial ecology and infectious disease.

Temperature-Regulated Bleaching and Lysis of the Coral Pocillopora damicornis by the Novel Pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus

TLDR
It is suggested that bleaching of P. damicornis results from an attack on the algae, whereas bacterium-induced lysis and death are promoted by bacterial extracellular proteases, which supports the bacterial hypothesis of coral bleaching.

The players in a mutualistic symbiosis: insects, bacteria, viruses, and virulence genes.

TLDR
It is proposed that, in these mutualistic symbionts, phage-borne toxin genes provide defense to the aphid host and are a basis for the observed protection against eukaryotic parasites.

The role of microorganisms in coral health, disease and evolution

TLDR
Generalization of the coral probiotic hypothesis has led to the hologenome theory of evolution, which proposes the occurrence of a dynamic relationship between symbiotic microorganisms and corals that selects for the coral holobiont that is best suited for the prevailing environmental conditions.

Marine phage genomics: what have we learned?

Thalassomonas loyana sp. nov., a causative agent of the white plague-like disease of corals on the Eilat coral reef.

TLDR
It is concluded that this strain represents a novel species for which the name Thalassomonas loyana sp.

Coral Resistance to Disease

TLDR
Predictive epidemiological models include not only terms for transmission of infectious microorganisms, but also terms for host resistance, which can determine the spread rate and impact of disease.