Petrology and thermal structure of the Hawaiian plume from Mauna Kea volcano

  title={Petrology and thermal structure of the Hawaiian plume from Mauna Kea volcano},
  author={Claude T. Herzberg},
There is uncertainty about whether the abundant tholeiitic lavas on Hawaii are the product of melt from peridotite or pyroxenite/eclogite rocks. Using a parameterization of melting experiments on peridotite with glass analyses from the Hawaii Scientific Deep Project 2 on Mauna Kea volcano, I show here that a small population of the core samples had fractionated from a peridotite-source primary magma. Most lavas, however, differentiated from magmas that were too deficient in CaO and enriched in… 

Petrological evidence for secular cooling in mantle plumes

It is shown that the MgO and FeO contents of Galapagos-related lavas and their primary magmas have decreased since the Cretaceous period, and this is interpreted to reflect episodic flow from lower-mantle domains that are lithologically and geochemically heterogeneous.

Compositional diversity of Mauna Kea shield lavas recovered by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project: Inferences on source lithology, magma supply, and the role of multiple volcanoes

The final Stage (Phase‐2) of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) recovered 408 m of basaltic core (3098–3506 mbsl) attributed to Mauna Kea volcano. We determined the major and trace element

Magma genesis beneath active continental rifts

The petrogenesis of Cenozoic alkaline magmas in the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) remains controversial, with competing models highlighting the roles of decompression melting due to passive

Geochemical Differences of the Hawaiian Shield Lavas: Implications for Melting Process in the Heterogeneous Hawaiian Plume

Numerous geochemical studies have indicated that the Hawaiian mantle plume consists of several distinct components. However, their origin remains controversial, with a number of different

Temperatures in ambient mantle and plumes: Constraints from basalts, picrites, and komatiites

Several methods have been developed to assess the thermal state of the mantle below oceanic ridges, islands, and plateaus, on the basis of the petrology and geochemistry of erupted lavas. One leads



The chemical structure of the Hawaiian mantle plume

The discovery of both Kea- and Loa-like major and trace element compositions in olivine-hosted melt inclusions in individual, shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes is reported, suggesting that the Hawaiian mantle plume is unlikely to be compositionally concentrically zoned.

The evolution of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Petrogenesis of tholeiitic and alkalic basalts

Mauna Kea Volcano has three exposed rock units. Submarine shield-building tholeiites form the oldest unit. Subaerial, interbedded tholeiitic and alkalic basalts form the intermediate age unit (70–240

Petrology of Long-Lived Mantle Plume Magmatism: Hawaii, Pacific, and Reunion Island, Indian Ocean

Mineralogy, geochemistry, and magmatic inclusions in minerals were investigated from represen­ tative samples of major volcanic series, and magmatic processes were numerically simulated to determine

Composition of basaltic lavas sampled by phase‐2 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project: Geochemical stratigraphy and magma types

This paper presents major and trace element compositions of lavas from the entire 3098 m stratigraphic section sampled by phase‐2 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project. The upper 245 m are lavas

Plume-Associated Ultramafic Magmas of Phanerozoic Age

the importance of ultramafic magmatism is often diminA parameterization of experimental data in the 0·2–7·0 GPa pressure range constrains both forward models of potential primary ished in models of

Recycled oceanic crust observed in ‘ghost plagioclase’ within the source of Mauna Loa lavas

The discovery of exotic, strontium-enriched melt inclusions in Mauna Loa olivines demonstrates that the former gabbro can retain much of its original chemical identity through the convective cycle without completely mixing with other portions of the former oceanic crust.

An olivine-free mantle source of Hawaiian shield basalts

Modelling shows that more than half of Hawaiian magmas formed during the past 1 Myr came from a deep olivine-bearing source, and the proportion of recycled (oceanic) crust varies from 30 per cent near the plume centre to insignificant levels at the plumes edge.

Enriched components in the Hawaiian plume: Evidence from Kahoolawe Volcano, Hawaii

The geochemical differences between individual Hawaiian shields provide clues to the magma source components in the Hawaiian plume. Lavas from Koolau (Makapuu‐stage) and Kahoolawe volcanoes define

Lead isotopes reveal bilateral asymmetry and vertical continuity in the Hawaiian mantle plume

It is concluded that narrow (less than 50 kilometres wide) compositional streaks, as well as the larger-scale bilateral zonation, are vertically continuous over tens to hundreds of kilometres within the plume.