Pestle-pounding and nut-cracking by wild chimpanzees at Kpala, Liberia

@article{Ohashi2015PestlepoundingAN,
  title={Pestle-pounding and nut-cracking by wild chimpanzees at Kpala, Liberia},
  author={Gaku Ohashi},
  journal={Primates},
  year={2015},
  volume={56},
  pages={113-117}
}
Bossou in Guinea is one of the longitudinal study sites of wild chimpanzees, and is located only a few kilometers away from the national border between Guinea and Liberia. The forests in the area spread over the national border of Guinea, and the Bossou chimpanzees have been found to use the neighboring Liberian forest. Local assistants and I started surveying these forests in Liberia, and found that additional groups of chimpanzees lived in Nimba County, Liberia. The present study reports tool… 
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References

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TLDR
It is likely that pestle pounding began from a single innovation at Bossou, based on the regionally established “oil palm cultural complex” of petiole feeding and nest building.
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TLDR
A new type of tool-using behavior was observed in a group of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea, which appears to have been invented recently and has since spread widely throughout the group as a habitual one.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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