Pestle-pounding and nut-cracking by wild chimpanzees at Kpala, Liberia

  title={Pestle-pounding and nut-cracking by wild chimpanzees at Kpala, Liberia},
  author={Gaku Ohashi},
Bossou in Guinea is one of the longitudinal study sites of wild chimpanzees, and is located only a few kilometers away from the national border between Guinea and Liberia. The forests in the area spread over the national border of Guinea, and the Bossou chimpanzees have been found to use the neighboring Liberian forest. Local assistants and I started surveying these forests in Liberia, and found that additional groups of chimpanzees lived in Nimba County, Liberia. The present study reports tool… 
Franco-Japanese and other collaborative contributions to understanding chimpanzee culture at Bossou and the Nimba Mountains
The value of an interdisciplinary approach and combining methodological approaches in exploring putative cultural variation among chimpanzees is highlighted to challenge perceptions of human uniqueness and to further the understanding of chimpanzee behavioural and social flexibility in the face of local social, ecological and anthropogenic changes and threats to their survival.
Landscaping the behavioural ecology of primate stone tool use
The findings indicate that the technological landscape of the Bossou chimpanzees shares affinities with the ‘favoured places’ model of hominin site formation and provides new insights for reconstructing ancient patterns of landscape use.
Landscapes of the apes: modelling landscape use of chimpanzees and early hominins across an environmental gradient.
As primate habitat is declining rapidly, studying the flexibility of primates to adapt to changing landscapes is important. Landscape-scale studies of primate habitat use are, however, scant.
Field studies of Pan troglodytes reviewed and comprehensively mapped, focussing on Japan’s contribution to cultural primatology
The origins and development of field studies of Pan troglodytes are reviewed, their progress based on analogy between cultural primatology and cultural anthropology is assessed, through four stages: natural history, ethnography, ethnology, and intuition.
The Lisu people’s traditional natural philosophy and its potential impact on conservation planning in the Laojun Mountain region, Yunnan Province, China
The data clearly indicated that most of the interviewees had similar feelings and attitudes toward the conservation of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys, irrespective of whether they live in or have moved away from their home village, or if their educational background differs.


Pestle-Pounding Behavior: The Key to the Coexistence of Humans and Chimpanzees
It is likely that pestle pounding began from a single innovation at Bossou, based on the regionally established “oil palm cultural complex” of petiole feeding and nest building.
Pestle-pounding behavior of wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea: A newly observed tool-using behavior
A new type of tool-using behavior was observed in a group of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Guinea, which appears to have been invented recently and has since spread widely throughout the group as a habitual one.
Oil Palm Use by Adjacent Communities of Chimpanzees at Bossou and Nimba Mountains, West Africa
Investigating oil palm use for feeding in 3 chimpanzee communities in Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire found no clear difference in proximate environmental variables underlying observed variations in oil palms, yielding the conclusion that the differences are cultural.
Behavioral Repertoire of Tool Use in the Wild Chimpanzees at Bossou
An exhaustive comparison of seven long-term wild chimpanzee studies identified regional variations in 39 behavioral patterns that cannot be explained by differences in local environmental conditions.
The chimpanzees of Bossou and Nimba
The Bossou chimpanzees occupy 6 km 2 of sacred forest and farm bush almost a day’s journey from any others of their species, and in apparent response to their strange isolation they challenge various demographic and behavioral generalizations.
Cultural innovation and transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees: evidence from field experiments
Evidence from three complementary approaches in a group of oil-palm nut- (Elaeis guineensis) cracking chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea demonstrates a mechanism for the emergence of culture in wild chimpanzees.
Chimpanzees of Sapo Forest, Liberia: Density, nests, tools and meat-eating
Evidence was found of the chimpanzees using stones as hammers to break open four species of nut; there may be differences in materials and techniques used in this behaviour between Sapo chimpanzees and those in Tai Forest, Ivory Coast.
Dietary responses to fruit scarcity of wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea: possible implications for ecological importance of tool use.
  • G. Yamakoshi
  • Biology
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1998
It is suggested that the Bossou chimpanzees depend strongly on tools for their subsistence, which implies a possible function for tool technology in the evolution of the authors' human ancestors.
From Bossou to the Forests of Liberia
Surveys in Liberia have confirmed the presence of chimpanzees in at least three areas: Bonla, Nimba Mountains, and Kpayee-Lepula, and the Manon people are widely distributed around this region.
Bossou Chimpanzees Crossed the National Border of Guinea into Liberia
The first observed case in which Bossou chimpanzees actually crossed the national border into the Liberian forest is reported, which is considered to be a first.