Perspectives for the development of animal models of bipolar disorder.

  title={Perspectives for the development of animal models of bipolar disorder.},
  author={roDriGo MaChaDo-vieira and Fl{\'a}vio Kapczinski and Jair C. Soares},
  journal={Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry},
  volume={28 2},
Bipolar disorder (BD) has been a particularly challenging illness for the development of adequate animal models for neurobiological studies. These difficulties are largely related to the peculiar clinical characteristics of this illness, with an intriguing alternation of mania, depression, euthymia, and mixed states. The etiology and brain mechanisms involved in this several mental illness remain unknown. Preclinical studies with animal models of mania or depression have been developed to… CONTINUE READING