One of the major problems with participatory design is that it is extremely difficult to apply it to current developments. Software development for the mass market is one aspect of current developments which has been addressed. The problem of how to apply participatory design invariably leads to questioning its relevance to present-day circumstances. It is suggested that new patterns of dominance must be revealed. The usability method known as 'personas' has been demonstrated to remedy the problems of including social and political issues in mass market software developments. This paper demonstrates how the application of personas to a mass market software development project failed because of patterns of dominance in the telecom branch which were unrecognised at the time. The identifying of these patterns of dominance contributes to a better understanding of some of the new patterns of power and domination in mass-market software developments that PD stands before.
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