Relationship between chronotype and temperament/character among university students.
OBJECTIVE This study investigated the personality traits of social phobics using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). METHOD A sample of 178 social phobics was assessed with the TCI, and compared with controls. The patients were classified into two groups, according to the absence (SP group) or to the presence (SP+D group) of depression. RESULTS We found significant elevated scores for harm avoidance (HA) in social phobics when compared with controls (16.2 +/- 2.7), in both the SP (26.2 +/- 3.5), and the SP+D (28.9 +/- 4.7), groups. Lower self-directedness scores were found in the SP and in the SP+D groups when compared with the controls. Patients with the generalized type of social phobia had higher HA scores as compared with other social phobics. CONCLUSION The personality profile obtained in these social phobics, whatever their depressive symptomatology, reflects a dramatically anxious and avoidant temperament associated to an immature character.