OBJECTIVE Change versus stability of personality in late adulthood is an intriguing yet understudied issue. This cross-sectional study examined age and gender differences in Cloninger's biosocial model of personality, as well as their relation to health in a Japanese community sample whose age exceeds 50 years. METHOD Participants (N=330) completed the Temperament and Character Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire. MANOVA and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS Age-related decreases in Reward Dependence, Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness, and an increase in Self-Transcendence were found. Health was significantly predicted by Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness. CONCLUSION Personality change in late adulthood tends to occur in environmentally-based character, in a pattern of gradual social detachment and internal spiritual growth. Personality is a stronger predictor of health than demographic variables.