Persistent left-sided superior vena cava: integrated noninvasive diagnosis.

  title={Persistent left-sided superior vena cava: integrated noninvasive diagnosis.},
  author={Antonino Recupero and Pietro Pugliatti and Fabrizio Rizzo and Scipione Carerj and Giovanni Cavalli and Cesare de Gregorio and Gianluca di Bella and Fabio Minutoli and Francesco Arrigo and Giuseppe Oreto and Sebastiano Coglitore},
  volume={24 9},
Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a rare finding. We describe 5 patients with PLSVC diagnosed by a noninvasive approach, including two-dimensional (2D) echocardiogram, nuclear magnetic resonance and multislice computed tomography (MCT). In 4 cases the PLSVC was isolated ("alone PLSVC"), and in 1 case associated with a right superior vena cava.