Persistence of arboviruses and antiviral antibodies in vertebrate hosts: its occurrence and impacts †

  title={Persistence of arboviruses and antiviral antibodies in vertebrate hosts: its occurrence and impacts †},
  author={Goro Kuno},
  journal={Reviews in Medical Virology},
  • G. Kuno
  • Published 1 May 2001
  • Biology
  • Reviews in Medical Virology
The recent isolation of West Nile virus from a bird in mid‐winter in New York immediately raised, as one of a few explanations, the possibility of long‐term persistence of arboviruses in vertebrate hosts. Although it was a highly popular topic for research many years ago, generally it has since been neglected and its meaning under appreciated. This comprehensive survey of literature worldwide uncovered, contrary to the general perception that it is a rather infrequent phenomenon, a large number… 

Vertebrate Reservoirs of Arboviruses: Myth, Synonym of Amplifier, or Reality?

Controversial issues concerning vertebrate reservoirs and their role in arbovirus persistence in nature are addressed, the genesis of the problem from a historical perspective, and various unresolved issues from multiple points of view are discussed.

Insights into Arbovirus Evolution and Adaptation from Experimental Studies

This review focuses on the areas of evolutionary constraints and mutant swarm dynamics; how experimental results compare to theoretical predictions; the importance of arbovirus ecology in shaping viral swarms; and how current knowledge should guide future questions relevant to understanding arbivirus evolution.

Biological Transmission of Arboviruses: Reexamination of and New Insights into Components, Mechanisms, and Unique Traits as Well as Their Evolutionary Trends

Discussion of the diverse range of theories proposed and observations made by many investigators was found to be highly valuable for sorting out the possible mechanism(s) of the emergence of arboviral diseases.

The ecology and epidemiology of Kunjin virus.

The purpose of this report is to review the ecology and epidemiology of KUN virus, and to discuss methods of surveillance, diagnosis and control, with pertinent comparisons to WN and MVE viruses.

Influence of hosts on the ecology of arboviral transmission: potential mechanisms influencing dengue, Murray Valley encephalitis, and Ross River virus in Australia.

It is argued that the underlying mechanisms by which hosts influence arboviral activity are numerous and attempts to delineate these mechanisms further are needed, and a framework is suggested that may be useful to identify and determine host contributions to the ecology ofArboviruses.

Persistent West Nile virus infection in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus)

Chronicity of WNV infection in some tissues, but not blood, supports the predation mechanism of W NV overwintering, butNot recrudescence, which impacts interpretation and etiologic determination of avian mortality.

Test of Recrudescence Hypothesis for Overwintering of West Nile Virus in Gray Catbirds

The spring recrudescence hypothesis was tested in a controlled laboratory experiment using hatching-year gray catbirds captured in northern Ohio and found no effect of either testosterone or migratory behavior on infection status in any of the treatment birds.

Oral transmission of West Nile virus in a hamster model.

The results from this and previously published studies indicate that a wide variety of animal species are susceptible to oral infection with WNV and that orally infected animals develop a viremia and illness similar to that following the bite of infected mosquitoes.

Persistence of West Nile Virus in the Central Nervous System and Periphery of Mice

It is shown that lymphocytes are functional during viral persistence in the central nervous system and periphery of mice, suggesting that immunosuppressed patients, organ transplantation, and long term sequelae may be impacted by WNV persistence.

Are Wild Birds Important in the Transport of Arthropod-borne Viruses?

The movements of migratory birds represent a major way that these viruses can be transported on a local, continental, and intercontinental scale, and virus transport by birds can explain the colonization of new geographic regions by arboviruses.



Relationships of Birds and Arboviruses

The relationships of birds and arboviruses are reviewed, the impact of epidemics ofArbovirus disease on human communities is illustrated, and some ornithological information needed by virologists and epidemiologists are outlined.

Mode of entry of a neurotropic arbovirus into the central nervous system. Reinvestigation of an old controversy.

Findings indicate that the olfactory pathway is the principal route of viral entry into the central nervous system, as well as an adaptation for nonarthropod-borne transmission, a feature of many flaviviruses.

A case of tick-borne encephalitis in Japan and isolation of the the virus

Serological examination of paired serum specimens showed a rise in the neutralization antibody titer to Russian spring summer encephalitis virus, providing evidence that TBE is endemic in a certain area of Japan.

Persistence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in monkeys. VII. Some features of the immune response.

In cases of asymptomatic infection a more expressed and long-lasting immunity as observed with the persistence of TBE virus in organs of the immune system is observed.

Human disease caused by an arbovirus closely related to Ilheus virus: report of five cases.

Serologic tests demonstrated the absence of antibodies in all samples from the 5 patients from the State of São Paulo during convalescence and even for more than 1 year after infection in 1 of them.

Duration of Alphavirus neutralizing antibody in naturally infected birds.

Native birds, mostly passerine species, ecologically associated with Culiseta melanura, the enzootic vector of eastern equine encephalomyelitis and Highlands J viruses in the eastern United States, were examined over a 12-year period in southeastern Massachusetts and the duration of detectable neutralizing antibody in these birds was found to be ephemeral in some species and extremely longlasting in others.

IgG avidity in the diagnosis of acute Ross River virus infection.

Tests to assess the avidity of specific IgG have been reported to be of value in diagnosing recent primary infection of other diseases such as rubella, toxoplasma, hantavirus, and Epstein-Barr virus and 8M urea as an avidity diluent is used to investigate IgG reactivity in a commercially available ELISA.

Relationship between Japanese B and Russian spring-summer encephalitis and birds.

It is apparent by the confirmation of viremia in 2 out of 126 sparrows that birds get infected with Japanese B encephalitis (JBE) virus in the form of inapparent infection, and birds are playing an important role as a source of infection.


Assessment of concurrently collected mosquitoes indicated no correlative association between mosquito populations and SLE seroconversion and reconversion, and European house sparrows introduced in the 1800's may have provided a supplemental link to the existing SLE virus enzootic cycle involving endemic house finches.

Recovery and Identification of West Nile Virus from a Hawk in Winter

The demonstration of infection with the West Nile virus in the dead of the winter, long after mosquitoes ceased to be active, is significant in that it testifies to the survival of theirus in the region beyond mosquito season and suggests another route of transmission: in this case, prey to predator.