AIMS Peritoneal tuberculosis is an important public health issue in Morocco. Our aim was to describe the clinical, biological, and therapeutic features of peritoneal tuberculosis treated in a University Hospital in Morocco. PATIENTS AND METHODS We retrospectively included 123 patients with peritoneal tuberculosis diagnosed at the gastroenterology unit of the Fes University Hospital between January 2001 and August 2003. RESULTS The mean age was 28 years with a clear female predominance (sex ratio 2.61). Ascites associated with fever were the most frequent signs found in 80.5% of patients. The ascitic fluid was exsudative in 90% of cases and lymphocytic in 88%. The diagnosis was based on laparoscopy or laparotomy with peritoneal biopsy demonstrating caseating granulomatous lesions in 92.4% of patients. Patients were given antituberculous therapy for 6 months, and the outcome was favourable in 90%. CONCLUSION Peritoneal tuberculosis is very frequent in Morocco, where the diagnosis is based exclusively on peritoneal biopsies obtained during laparoscopy. With an adapted treatment, the course of the disease is favourable in most cases.