There is limited information about peritoneal tuberculosis in Qatar. This retrospective study aimed to review our experience with peritoneal tuberculosis in patients admitted to Hamad general hospital over a period of 5 years, from 2005 to 2009, with emphasis on presentation, investigation, diagnosis and therapeutic outcome. Fifty-four patients with peritoneal tuberculosis identified during the study period were included. The mean age of them was 31.85 years and 96.3% (52/54) of them were non-Qataris with male predominance. The main symptoms and signs at the time of presentation were abdominal pain and ascites respectively. Underlying diseases were described in 24% (13/54) and history of contact with tuberculous cases was present in 31.5% (17/54) of patients. Tuberculin test was positive in 66.7% (36/54). The ascitic fluid smear showed acid fast bacilli in 2% (1/53), and culture was positive in 39.6% (21/53) of cases. Laparoscopically obtained peritoneal biopsy showed caseating granulomas in 93% (40/43) and mycobacteria were identified by acid fast staining and culture in 58.5% (24/41) and 98% (40/41) of the tested specimens respectively. Most of the patients (84%; 37/44) who had completed their therapy in Qatar improved with antituberculosis therapy, and only one patient died. In conclusion, the clinical features and the imaging findings of the disease were non-specific. A high index of suspicion is essential for early diagnosis. Culture of ascitic fluid delayed the diagnosis in clinically suspected cases, whereas laparoscopically guided peritoneal biopsy provided rapid and correct diagnosis. A Six-month course with antituberculous therapy was effective and improved the outcome.