A review of dosimetry studies on external-beam radiation treatment with respect to second cancer induction.
The purpose of this work is to measure the dose outside the treatment field for conformal CyberKnife treatments, to compare the results to those obtained for similar treatments delivered with gamma knife or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and to investigate the sources of peripheral dose in CyberKnife radiosurgery. CyberKnife treatment plans were developed for two hypothetical lesions in an anthropomorphic phantom, one in the thorax and another in the brain, and measurements were made with LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100 capsules) placed within the phantom at various depths and distances from the irradiated volume. For the brain lesion, gamma knife and 6-MV IMRT treatment plans were also developed, and peripheral doses were measured at the same locations as for the CyberKnife plan. The relative contribution to the CyberKnife peripheral dose from inferior- or superior-oblique beams entering or exiting through the body, internally scattered radiation, and leakage radiation was assessed through additional experiments using the single-isocenter option of the CyberKnife treatment-planning program with different size collimators. CyberKnife peripheral doses (in cGy) ranged from 0.16 to 0.041% (+/- 0.003%) of the delivered number of monitor units (MU) at distances between 18 and 71 cm from the field edge. These values are two to five times larger than those measured for the comparable gamma knife brain treatment, and up to a factor of four times larger those measured in the IMRT experiment. Our results indicate that the CyberKnife peripheral dose is due largely to leakage radiation, however at distances less than 40 cm from the field edge, entrance, or exit dose from inferior- or superior-oblique beams can also contribute significantly. For distances larger than 40 cm from the field edge, the CyberKnife peripheral dose is directly related to the number of MU delivered, since leakage radiation is the dominant component.