Peripheral bee venom's anti-inflammatory effect involves activation of the coeruleospinal pathway and sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Abstract

There are several reports indicating that the locus coeruleus (LC) is capable of altering immune responses. Moreover, it is well established that the LC is the major source of descending noradrenergic system. Recently we have demonstrated that subcutaneous bee venom (BV) injection dramatically suppressed peripheral inflammation through activation of… (More)

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