Perioperative transoesophageal echocardiography: current status and future directions.

@article{Mahmood2016PerioperativeTE,
  title={Perioperative transoesophageal echocardiography: current status and future directions.},
  author={Feroze U. Mahmood and Stanton Keith Shernan},
  journal={Heart},
  year={2016},
  volume={102 15},
  pages={1159-67}
}
Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) is used in the perioperative arena to monitor patients during life-threatening emergencies, cardiac and high-risk non-cardiac surgeries. It provides qualitative and quantitative information on valvular and ventricular functions, and dynamic cardiac anatomy can be displayed with a physiological perspective. This technology has evolved from two-dimensional (2D) to the ready availability of real-time three-dimensional (RT-3D) imaging in the operating rooms… CONTINUE READING