Perioperative sargramostim (recombinant human GM-CSF) induces an increase in the level of soluble VEGFR1 in colon cancer patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery.

@article{Kirman2007PerioperativeS,
  title={Perioperative sargramostim (recombinant human GM-CSF) induces an increase in the level of soluble VEGFR1 in colon cancer patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery.},
  author={Irena Kirman and Avraham Belizon and Erdinç Balik and Daniel Feingold and Tracy Arnell and Patrick K. Horst and Suchetha Kumara and Vesna Cekic and Sanjay Jain and Ahmed Jouda Nasar and Richard Larry Whelan},
  journal={European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology},
  year={2007},
  volume={33 10},
  pages={
          1169-76
        }
}
INTRODUCTION Experimentally, laparotomy is associated with increased tumor growth. In humans, abdominal surgery is associated with immunosuppression and elevated plasma VEGF levels that might stimulate tumor growth early after surgery. Avoidance of these surgery-related changes and their consequences may be advantageous. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) is a non-specific immune system up-regulator that has also been associated, experimentally, with increased release of… CONTINUE READING
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