Caries Experience and Periodontal Status during Pregnancy in a Group of Pregnant Women with HIV+ Infections from Puerto Rico
OBJECTIVE Oral and dental problems are common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals, particularly the periodontitis is common in HIV-infected subjects. AIM To evaluate the cytokine patterns in HIV+ patients with periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study we analysed: HIV+ patients with and without periodontitis and HIV negative patients with and without periodontitis. The clinical periodontal evaluation was based on periodontal disease index and radiographic and clinical evidence of alveolar bone loss. The CD4- and CD8-T cell counts and the plasma viral load were measured. The Interferon (IFN)-gamma, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha, Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-6 were evaluated by Cytometric Bead Array Assay and the IL-18 plasmatic levels were calculated by ELISA. RESULTS The group of HIV+ with periodontitis shown levels of IL-2 and IL-18 statistically higher that the group of HIV+ without periodontitis. A positive correlation between the degree of the periodontitis and IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-18 and CD8+ cells in the group of HIV+ with periodontitis has been shown. CONCLUSIONS The results of the present study confirm that the IL-18, together with other cytokines, has a potential role in aetiopathogenesis of periodontitis in HIV+ patients.