Periodontal manifestations of Ehlers–Danlos syndromes: A systematic review

@article{KapfererSeebacher2017PeriodontalMO,
  title={Periodontal manifestations of Ehlers–Danlos syndromes: A systematic review},
  author={Ines Kapferer-Seebacher and Pernilla Lundberg and Franziska Malfait and Johannes Zschocke},
  journal={Journal of Clinical Periodontology},
  year={2017},
  volume={44},
  pages={1088–1100}
}
AIM Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a group of inherited connective tissue disorders, characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and tissue fragility. Periodontal EDS (pEDS) is a specific EDS subtype caused by heterozygous mutations in complement 1 subunit genes C1R and C1S, with early severe periodontitis as predominant clinical feature. We aimed to systematically assess the spectrum of periodontal abnormalities in all EDS subtypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS An electronic… 

Dental Manifestations of Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes: A Systematic Review.

TLDR
A review systematically assessed the spectrum of published dental anomalies in various types of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, finding that dental abnormalities observed in vascular EDS were pulp shape modifications, exceeding root length, and molar root fusion.

Oral characteristics in adult individuals with periodontal Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

TLDR
Characteristic oral traits of pEDS in adults are severe clinical attachment loss with shallow probing depths and marked gingival recession and these indications need to be paralleled by genetic analyses to diagnose pEDs unambiguously.

Prepubertal Periodontitis in a Patient with Combined Classical and Periodontal Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome

TLDR
Early severe periodontitis in association with generalized lack of attached gingiva is pathognomonic for periodontal EDS and led to the right clinical and genetic diagnosis in the present case.

Oral manifestations of Ehlers‐Danlos syndromes

TLDR
The current knowledge in the various EDS types is summarized, in particular regarding severe changes in oral health‐related quality of life, the differential emergence of periodontitis, characteristic yet highly cumbersome dental manifestations, apparent anomalies of oral soft tissues, and relevant issues related to dental implantology.

Prospective clinical investigations of children with periodontal Ehlers-Danlos syndrome identify generalized lack of attached gingiva as a pathognomonic feature.

TLDR
Generalized lack of attached gingiva is a pathognomonic feature of pEDS and the only clinical finding that is consistently present in affected adults and children, which may be essential to prevent early dental loss.

Two Different Missense C1S Mutations, Associated to Periodontal Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Lead to Identical Molecular Outcomes

TLDR
Comparative enzymatic analyses show that Fg40 retains the native esterolytic activity of C1s, as well as its cleavage efficiency toward the ancillary alarmin HMGB1 substrate, for example, whereas the nominal complement C4 activation cleavage is impaired.

Periodontal Ehlers–Danlos syndrome is associated with leukoencephalopathy

TLDR
The observation that periodontal Ehlers–Danlos syndrome caused by missense mutations in C1R is consistently associated with a leukoencephalopathy opens a new pathogenic link between the classical complement pathway, connective tissue, brain small vessels, and brain white matter abnormalities.

Atrophic violaceus pretibial plaques: when the clue is the oral mucosa

TLDR
A family with pEDS, who had been misdiagnosed for years, was reported, and brain magnetic resonance imaging of the father was suggestive of a leucoencephalopathy pattern, which could be related to small vessel abnormalities, but might also been related to his hypertension.

Surgical-orthodontic treatment in patients with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: a report of two familial cases

TLDR
The surgical-orthodontic treatment for two sisters affected by a common and familial form of EDS, with a follow-up period of 8 years, and a review of oro-dental manifestations and therapeutic approaches for patients with EDS are described.

A Chinese family with periodontal Ehlers–Danlos syndrome associated with missense mutation in the C1R gene

TLDR
To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of coexistence of two forms of EDS in a single individual, with coexistence C1R and COL3A1 mutations in the proband who was suspected to suffer from vascular EDS as well.

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