Periodontal diseases

  title={Periodontal diseases},
  author={Denis F. Kinane and Panagiota G. Stathopoulou and Panos N. Papapanou},
  journal={Nature Reviews Disease Primers},
Periodontal diseases comprise a wide range of inflammatory conditions that affect the supporting structures of the teeth (the gingiva, bone and periodontal ligament), which could lead to tooth loss and contribute to systemic inflammation. Chronic periodontitis predominantly affects adults, but aggressive periodontitis may occasionally occur in children. Periodontal disease initiation and propagation is through a dysbiosis of the commensal oral microbiota (dental plaque), which then interacts… 

Mucosal Vaccination Against Periodontal Disease: Current Status and Opportunities

A comprehensive overview of mucosal vaccination strategies to induce protective immunity in the oral cavity for periodontal disease control is offered and the need for additional research with appropriate and clinically relevant animal models is highlighted.

Pharmacological Therapies for the Management of Inflammatory Bone Resorption in Periodontal Disease: A Review of Preclinical Studies

The role of several pharmacological drugs used for periodontal disease prevention and treatment are summarized and the targeted action of all those drugs with antiresorptive properties are highlighted.

Co-pathogens in Periodontitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

The potential common pathogenic microorganisms that may serve as bridges between the two diseases, as well as invasive microorganisms such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Klebsiella spp.

The Chairside Periodontal Diagnostic Toolkit: Past, Present, and Future

The available toolkit available for diagnosingperiodontal diseases is reviewed, commercially available options are discussed, and the need for collaborative research initiatives and state-of-the-art technology development across disciplines to overcome the challenges of rapid periodontal disease diagnosis is highlighted.

Application of Ligature-Induced Periodontitis in Mice to Explore the Molecular Mechanism of Periodontal Disease

A new murine model of periodontitis widely used to simulate alveolar bone resorption and periodontal soft tissue destruction by ligation is reviewed to provide evidence and enlightenment for future studies planning to use this model.

Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Long-Range Pathogen: Systemic Impact and Therapeutic Implications

New therapeutic strategies for periodontitis and other dysbiotic conditions, including the use of beneficial microbes to restore healthy microbial flora, may pave the way to improved therapeutic outcomes and more thorough patient management.

The Periodontal Microenvironment: a Potential Reservoir for Intestinal Pathobionts in Crohn’s Disease

A better understanding of the relationship between periodontal disease and Crohn's disease may help define new therapeutic targets for the management of Crohn’s disease.

Tobacco Use and Periodontal Disease—The Role of Microvascular Dysfunction

This paper intends to provide a comprehensive review about the impact of tobacco use on oral microcirculation and the mechanisms underlying periodontal disease aggravation, and is the first comprehensive review on the mechanisms by which tobacco use affects oral micro Circulation and impacts the pathophysiology of periodontals disease.

The Impact of Smoking on Subgingival Microflora: From Periodontal Health to Disease

Available literature suggests that smoking facilitates early acquisition and colonization of periodontal pathogens, resulting in an “at-risk-for-harm” subgingival microbial community in the healthy periodontium, which is characterized by a pathogen-enriched community with lower resilience compared to that in non-smokers, which increases the difficulty of treatment.

What is the future of Periodontal Medicine?

In the last five decades, considerable progress has been made towards understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal diseases and their interactions with the host. The impact of an



Periodontal manifestations of systemic disease.

Periodontitis is a chronic bacterial infection of the supporting structures of the teeth and the chronic inflammatory and microbial burden in periodontal disease may predispose to cardiovascular disease in ways proposed for other infections such as with Chlamydia pneumoniae.

Immune processes in periodontal disease: a review.

This review will focus on immunological aspects of the inflammatory changes seen in gingivitis and periodontitis, addressing both humoral and cellular responses to the microbial insult from dental plaque.

Periodontitis: a polymicrobial disruption of host homeostasis

  • R. Darveau
  • Biology, Medicine
    Nature Reviews Microbiology
  • 2010
The interaction of the host immune system with the oral bacteria in healthy states and in diseased states is described and disease may result from 'community-based' attack on the host.

Periodontal herpesviruses: prevalence, pathogenicity, systemic risk.

  • J. Slots
  • Medicine, Biology
    Periodontology 2000
  • 2015
The notion that a co-infection of herpesviruses and specific bacteria causes periodontitis provides a plausible etiopathogenic explanation for the disease and can diminish significantly the periodontal load of herpesvirus.

Resolution of Inflammation: A New Paradigm for the Pathogenesis of Periodontal Diseases

The biochemical pathways and molecular mediators that are responsible for regulation of the inflammatory response in diseases such as periodontitis are reviewed, with a focus on lipid mediators of inflammation.

Periodontal diseases' contributions to cardiovascular disease: an overview of potential mechanisms.

  • D. Kinane
  • Medicine, Biology
    Annals of periodontology
  • 1998
The objective of this review is to consider the mechanisms whereby diseases such as periodontitis, which is chronic and Inflammatory In nature and initiated by microbial plaque, can predispose to atherosclerosis.

Cytokines that promote periodontal tissue destruction.

  • D. Graves
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of periodontology
  • 2008
Key findings are summarized that attempt to delineate the mechanisms by which immune factors can lead to the loss of connective tissue attachment and alveolar bone in periodontal disease.

The subgingival periodontal microbiota of the aging mouth.

An overview of the composition of the subgingival biofilm in older adults and the potential effects of age on the oral microbiome is provided and the relationship of the aging oral microbiota and Alzheimer's disease is examined.

Experimental gingivitis in relation to age in individuals not susceptible to periodontal destruction.

It was concluded that age is of minor importance in the development of experimentally-induced gingivitis in individuals not susceptible to periodontal destruction.

Systemic Biomarkers for Periodontitis

This paper provides a comprehensive review of systemic biomarkers derived form blood or saliva that have the potential to be utilized as a diagnostic and monitoring test for periodontitis at the patient level.