AIMS The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal disease and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and their associations within a predefined Indian population. METHODS A community-based cross-sectional study of 500 selected individuals using a questionnaire, oral examination, rapid urease testing of dental plaque, and serological examination for immunoglobulin G antibody to H. pylori was carried out. RESULTS Periodontal disease and H. pylori infection were prevalent in more than 50% of the population. Age, smoking, and diabetic status of the individuals were risk factors for periodontal disease after multivariate analysis, and a lack of proper sewage and waste disposal facilities were found to increase the risk of H. pylori infection. Although there was no association between periodontal disease and H. pylori seropositivity in the community, a highly-significant association was found between periodontal disease and colonization of H. pylori in dental plaque. CONCLUSIONS Because periodontal disease is associated with the increased colonization of H. pylori, new treatment modalities, such as plaque control measures, should be employed for the complete management of H. pylori-associated gastric disease.