Periodontal microsurgery is a refinement in existing basic surgical techniques that uses surgical microscopes and loupes and subsequent improvement in vision. Apothekar and Jako first introduced surgical microscopes to dentistry in 1978. Magnification systems in surgery have revolutionized surgical treatment in recent era. Delivering treatment care through magnification requires understanding of optical principles of various magnification instruments. Microscopes provide magnification above 10X, Dental optical loupes provide economic and mobile options to Periodontists. These loupes follow Keplerian optical principles. The advantages include better diagnosis and assessment of root surface, less tissue trauma and improved cosmetic result. On the contrary disadvantages include further training and high cost of instrumentation, which can translate into higher treatment costs. Although clinical studies and evidence is lacking further research is needed, so that better care is delivered through magnification with less morbidity and improved cosmetic result.