Gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance: administered dose in relationship to united states food and drug administration (FDA) guidelines
BACKGROUND The identification and assessment of myocardial infarction (MI) are important for therapeutic and prognostic purposes, yet current recommended diagnostic strategies have significant limitations. We prospectively tested the performance of delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium-based contrast for the detection of MI in an international, multicenter trial. METHODS AND RESULTS Patients with their first MI were enrolled in an acute (< or = 16 days after MI; n=282) or chronic (17 days to 6 months; n=284) arm and then randomized to 1 of 4 doses of gadoversetamide: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 mmol/kg. Standard delayed-enhancement MRI was performed before contrast (control) and 10 and 30 minutes after gadoversetamide. For blinded analysis, precontrast and postcontrast MRIs were randomized and then scored for enhanced regions by 3 independent readers not associated with the study. The infarct-related artery perfusion territory was scored from x-ray angiograms separately. In total, 566 scans were performed in 26 centers using commercially available scanners from all major US/European vendors. All scans were included in the analysis. The sensitivity of MRI for detecting MI increased with rising dose of gadoversetamide (P<0.0001), reaching 99% (acute) and 94% (chronic) after contrast compared with 11% before contrast. Likewise, the accuracy of MRI for identifying MI location (compared with infarct-related artery perfusion territory) increased with rising dose of gadoversetamide (P<0.0001), reaching 99% (acute) and 91% (chronic) after contrast compared with 9% before contrast. For gadoversetamide doses > or = 0.2 mmol/kg, 10- and 30-minute images provided equal performance, and peak creatine kinase-MB levels correlated with MRI infarct size (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Gadoversetamide-enhanced MRI using doses of > or = 0.2 mmol/kg is effective in the detection and assessment of both acute and chronic MI. This study represents the first multicenter trial designed to evaluate an imaging approach for detecting MI.