# Performance of checksums and CRC's over real data

@article{Stone1995PerformanceOC, title={Performance of checksums and CRC's over real data}, author={Jonathan Stone and Michael B. Greenwald and Craig Partridge and James P. Hughes}, journal={IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.}, year={1995}, volume={6}, pages={529-543} }

Checksum and CRC algorithms have historically been studied under the assumption that the data fed to the algorithms was entirely random. This paper examines the behavior of checksums and CRCs over real data from various UNIXr file systems. We show that, when given real data in small to modest pieces (e.g., 48 bytes), all the checksum algorithms have skewed distributions. In one dramatic case, 0.01% of the check values appeared nearly 19% of the time. These results have implications for CRCs and…

## 67 Citations

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Examination of the behavior of checksums and CRCs over real data from various UNIX® file systems shows that, when given real data in small to modest pieces, all the checksum algorithms have skewed distributions.