Performance-enhancing substances in sports: a review of the literature.

  title={Performance-enhancing substances in sports: a review of the literature.},
  author={Amit M. Momaya and Marc Fawal and Reed Estes},
  journal={Sports medicine},
  volume={45 4},
Performance-enhancing substances (PESs) have unfortunately become ubiquitous in numerous sports, often tarnishing the spirit of competition. Reported rates of PES use among athletes are variable and range from 5 to 31%. More importantly, some of these substances pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of athletes. Common PESs include anabolic-androgenic steroids, human growth hormone, creatine, erythropoietin and blood doping, amphetamines and stimulants, and beta-hydroxy-beta… CONTINUE READING
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