Performance-Enhancing Substances in Sports: A Review of the Literature

  title={Performance-Enhancing Substances in Sports: A Review of the Literature},
  author={Amit M. Momaya and M.M.El. Fawal and Reed Estes},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
Performance-enhancing substances (PESs) have unfortunately become ubiquitous in numerous sports, often tarnishing the spirit of competition. Reported rates of PES use among athletes are variable and range from 5 to 31 %. More importantly, some of these substances pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of athletes. Common PESs include anabolic–androgenic steroids, human growth hormone, creatine, erythropoietin and blood doping, amphetamines and stimulants, and beta-hydroxy-beta… 
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