Perennial water ice identified in the south polar cap of Mars

@article{Bibring2004PerennialWI,
  title={Perennial water ice identified in the south polar cap of Mars},
  author={J. P. Bibring and Y. Langevin and François Poulet and Aline Gendrin and B. Gondet and Michel Berthé and Alain Soufflot and Pierre Drossart and Michel Combes and Giancarlo Bellucci and Vassili I. Moroz and Nicolas Mangold and Bernard Schmitt and the Omega team},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2004},
  volume={428},
  pages={627-630}
}
The inventory of water and carbon dioxide reservoirs on Mars are important clues for understanding the geological, climatic and potentially exobiological evolution of the planet. From the early mapping observation of the permanent ice caps on the martian poles, the northern cap was believed to be mainly composed of water ice, whereas the southern cap was thought to be constituted of carbon dioxide ice. However, recent missions (NASA missions Mars Global Surveyor and Odyssey) have revealed… 
On the mystery of the perennial carbon dioxide cap at the south pole of Mars
A perennial ice cap has long been observed near the south pole of Mars. The surface of this cap is predominantly composed of carbon dioxide ice. The retention of a CO_2 ice cap results from the
Water at the poles and in permafrost regions of mars
The poles and mid-latitudes of Mars contain abundant water in ice caps, thick sequences of ice-rich layers, and mantles of snow. The volume of the known reservoir is ≥5 x 106 km3, corresponding to a
On the origin of perennial water ice at the south pole of Mars: A precession-controlled mechanism?
[1] The poles of Mars are known to have recorded recent (<107 years) climatic changes. While the south polar region appears to have preserved its million-year-old environment from major resurfacing
Wet-based glaciation on Mars
Mars is a glacial planet. It hosts water ice in large polar ice caps, and in thousands of ‘viscous flow features’ in its mid latitudes that are thought to be debris-covered water ice glaciers. These
Cold-Trapping Mars' Atmosphere
TLDR
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has observed large deposits of frozen CO2 at Mars' southern polar region, and these are most likely composed of solid CO2 and comparable in mass to the present Mars atmosphere.
Evidence for Climate Change on Mars
One of the most striking differences between the present day climates of Earth and Mars is the ubiquitous and abundant presence of liquid water on Earth and the extremely dry atmosphere and surface
Martian north polar cap summer water cycle
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 19 REFERENCES
Exposed Water Ice Discovered near the South Pole of Mars
TLDR
The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap, indicating that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap.
The state and future of Mars polar science and exploration.
TLDR
The current state of Mars polar research is assessed, the key questions that motivate the exploration of the polar regions are identified, the extent to which current missions will address these questions are discussed, and what additional capabilities and investigations may be required to address the issues that remain outstanding are speculated.
The Instability of a South Polar Cap on Mars Composed of Carbon Dioxide
Abstract If the martian south polar cap were composed of solid carbon dioxide, would it be sufficiently stable against collapse under its own weight? This question is examined in the light of new
North–south geological differences between the residual polar caps on Mars
TLDR
It is shown that the residual cap on the south pole is a distinct geologic unit with striking collapse and erosional topography; this is very different from the residualcap on the north pole, which grades into the underlying layered materials.
A Sublimation Model for Martian South Polar Ice Features
TLDR
This work argues that a carbon dioxide ice layer about 8 meters thick is being etched away to reveal water ice underneath on Mars, consistent with thermal infrared data from the Mars Odyssey mission.
Mariner 9 observations of the south polar cap of Mars: Evidence for residual CO2 frost
The first spacecraft observations of the south residual polar cap of Mars were obtained by the Mariner 9 orbiter during the Martian southern summer season, 1971–1972. Analyses of Viking orbiter
Mars south polar spring and summer temperatures: A residual CO2 frost
The Viking infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) has measured reflected and emitted energy over Mars south polar cap throughout the martian spring and summer. During these 1976–1977 observations the polar
Distribution of Hydrogen in the Near Surface of Mars: Evidence for Subsurface Ice Deposits
TLDR
The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on the Mars Odyssey has identified two regions near the poles that are enriched in hydrogen, and it is suggested that the host of the hydrogen in the subsurface layer is ice, which constitutes 35 ± 15% of the layer by weight.
The global topography of Mars and implications for surface evolution.
Elevations measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter have yielded a high-accuracy global map of the topography of Mars. Dominant features include the low northern hemisphere, the Tharsis province,
Stereo topography of the south polar region of Mars: Volatile inventory and Mars Polar Lander landing site
Viking stereo images and topographic maps reveal that the south polar layered deposits of Mars are topographically complex and morphologically distinct from the north polar layered deposits. The
...
...