BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to review the results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), stenting, or both in the treatment of patients who present with symptoms and angiographic findings most consistent with chronic mesenteric ischemia. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective analysis of 33 consecutive patients from a single institution who underwent PTA, stenting, or both for treatment of symptoms most characteristic of chronic mesenteric ischemia was performed. RESULTS There were 12 men and 21 women with a mean age of 63 years (range 40 to 89 years). Median weight loss was 28 lb (range 6 to 80 lb). Postprandial pain was present in 88% of the patients (29 of 33). All lesions treated were stenoses. PTA alone was performed in 21 patients (32 vessels), and PTA and stenting were performed in 12 patients (15 vessels). PTA was technically successful in 26 of 32 vessels (81.3%); PTA plus stenting was technically successful in 15 of 15 vessels (100%) (p = 0.073). Complete alleviation of symptoms occurred immediately in 27 of the patients (82%), and 2 patients (6%) had significant improvement in symptoms. There were four immediate clinical failures (12%): two patients were found to have occult malignancy and one had immediate relief of symptoms after surgical release of the median arcuate ligament. Followup data were obtained in all patients with clinically successful procedures (mean 38 months, median 25 months, range 1 to 123 months). Angiographic followup was available in 52% of the patients (15 of 29), at a mean of 20 months. The primary longterm clinical success rate was 83.3% (24 of 29). Four of the five patients with recurrent symptoms were successfully retreated with endovascular therapy. The primary assisted longterm clinical success rate was 96.6% (28 of 29). The 5-year survival rate was 76.1%. Major complications occurred in 13% of the procedures, with a 30-day mortality rate of 0%. CONCLUSION Endovascular therapy for treatment of mesenteric arterial stenoses is effective in the treatment of patients with symptoms and angiographic findings characteristic of chronic mesenteric ischemia.