Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy: application to staghorn calculi.


Twenty-five renal staghorn stones measuring at least 5 cm in diameter were removed percutaneously from 24 patients. Twelve patients required multiple access tracts for complete stone removal. Estimated blood loss more than 1000 ml occurred in 16 patients and temperature greater than 38.5 degrees C in 19 patients. All stones were successfully removed, with… (More)