Percutaneous exposure to the nerve agent VX: Efficacy of combined atropine, obidoxime and diazepam treatment.

@article{Joosen2010PercutaneousET,
  title={Percutaneous exposure to the nerve agent VX: Efficacy of combined atropine, obidoxime and diazepam treatment.},
  author={M. Joosen and M. J. van der Schans and H. V. van Helden},
  journal={Chemico-biological interactions},
  year={2010},
  volume={188 1},
  pages={
          255-63
        }
}
The nerve agent VX is most likely to enter the body via liquid contamination of the skin. After percutaneous exposure, the slow uptake into the blood, and its slow elimination result in toxic levels in plasma for a period of several hours. Consequently, this has implications for the development of toxic signs and for treatment onset. In the present study, clinical signs, toxicokinetics and effects on respiration, electroencephalogram and heart rate were investigated in hairless guinea pigs… Expand
Timing of decontamination and treatment in case of percutaneous VX poisoning: a mini review.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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A Study on the Anticonvulsant Effects of Centrally-Acting Drugs by Measuring Electroencephalography of Experimental Animals Intoxicated with Organophosphate Compounds
TLDR
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Percutaneous Exposure to VX: Clinical Signs, Effects on Brain Acetylcholine Levels and EEG
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Clinical signs will mainly serve as indicators for the onset and maintenance of treatment in subsequent studies, and the relative onset times of signs of poisoning were shown to have a predictive value for survival time. Expand
Clinical aspects of percutaneous poisoning by the chemical warfare agent VX: effects of application site and decontamination.
TLDR
Results confirm earlier work that demonstrates the importance of exposure site on the resultant toxicity of this agent and show that decontamination postexposure has the potential to be an integral and extremely important component of medical countermeasures against this agent. Expand
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TLDR
It appears that (+/-)-VX is substantially more persistent in vivo than the two G-agents, which may undermine the efficacy of pretreatment with carbamates of percutaneous intoxication in particular due to gradual replacement of carbamate on AChE by (+/--VX, whereas classical treatment of intoxication with oximes is hampered by the short persistence of oximes relative to the agent. Expand
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TLDR
GAL post-exposure treatment protected the guinea pig diaphragm, the major effector muscle of respiration, from fatigue, tetanic fade, and muscular paralysis and reduced the high correlation associated between seizure activity and lethality after 2LD50 VX challenge. Expand
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Intense monitoring of organophosphate-poisoned patients allowed assessment of why a given obidoxime concentration was, or was not, able to counteract the re-inhibition of the RBC–AChE, and found a close correlation between RBC-A ChE activity and neuromuscular transmission and a reciprocal correlation between both the atropine maintenance dose and/or its plasma concentration. Expand
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Data indicate that the reactivating potency of oximes may be different in humans and animal species, which may hamper the extrapolation of animal data to humans and may pose a problem in the drug licensing of new compounds. Expand
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TLDR
It is inferred that dermatomed, abdominal pig skin is an appropriate model for the human skin absorption of VX, as there was no significant difference in the permeability of pig and human skin. Expand
Low concentrations of the organophosphate VX affect spontaneous and evoked transmitter release from hippocampal neurons: toxicological relevance of cholinesterase-independent actions.
TLDR
The ability of VX to affect transmitter release in the brain may underlie some of its neurotoxic effects and may provide the basis for the development of therapeutic countermeasures to treat and/or prevent VX-induced neurotoxicity. Expand
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