Perceptual load in the reading of Arabic: Effects of orthographic visual complexity on detection

  title={Perceptual load in the reading of Arabic: Effects of orthographic visual complexity on detection},
  author={Souad Abdelhadi and Raphiq Ibrahim and Zohar Eviatar},
  journal={Writing Systems Research},
  pages={117 - 127}
Previous research has suggested that reading Arabic is slower than reading Hebrew or English, even among native Arabic readers. We tested the hypothesis that at least part of the difficulty in reading Arabic is due to the visual complexity of Arabic orthography. Third- and sixth-grade native readers of Arabic who were studying Hebrew in school were asked to detect a vowel diacritic in the context of Hebrew words and nonwords, Arabic words and nonwords (including connected and unconnected Arabic… 
Speed of reading texts in Arabic and Hebrew
We tested the effects of orthography on text reading by comparing reading measures in Arabic and Hebrew-speaking adults. The languages are typologically very similar, but use different orthographies.
How Does Type of Orthography Affect Reading in Arabic and Hebrew as First and Second Languages
This study aimed to examine the effects of visual characteristics of Arabic orthography on learning to read compared to Hebrew among Arabic and Hebrew bilinguals in an elementary bilingual education
The effect of the internal orthographic connectivity of written Arabic words on the process of the visual recognition: A comparison between skilled and dyslexic readers
Previous research has suggested that reading Arabic is more challenging than reading Hebrew or English, even among native Arabic readers due to the visual complexity of the Arabic orthography. In
Visual and orthographic processing in Arabic word recognition among dyslexic and typical readers
ABSTRACT The main objective of this research was to assess the influence of visual processing on Arabic reading accuracy and fluency of word recognition in a deep (unvowelled) version and a shallow
The impact of orthographic connectivity on visual word recognition in Arabic: A cross-sectional study
This study aimed at assessing the effects of letters’ connectivity in Arabic on visual word recognition. For this purpose, reaction times (RTs) and accuracy scores were collected from ninety-third,
How does speed and accuracy in reading relate to reading comprehension in Arabic
Investigation of the potential contribution of decoding efficiency to the development of reading comprehension among skilled adult native Arabic speakers and the influence of Arabic vowels on reading accuracy, reading speed, and therefore to reading comprehension indicated that silent reading comprehension of pointed and unpointed Arabic texts was uncorrelated with either oral reading speed or accuracy.
Why is it Hard to Read Arabic
Previous research has shown that reading in Arabic is a slower process than reading in other languages, even among skilled native Arabic speakers. In addition, the process of reading acquisition by
The effect of printed word attributes on Arabic reading
Printed Arabic texts usually contain no short vowels and therefore a single letter string can often be associated with two or more distinct pronunciations and meanings. The high level of homography
  • Psychology
  • 2015
. In order to assess the unique reading processes in Arabic, given its unique orthographic nature of natural inherent variations of inter-letter spacing, the current study examined the extent and
Visual processing of connected and unconnected letters and words in Arabic
This study is the first instance of the word length effect being studied in an Arabic context using different word lengths, and the average reading time for Arabic words is affected by the word connectivity, since theaverage reading time is shorter for connected than unconnected words of all word lengths.


Orthography and the hemispheres: visual and linguistic aspects of letter processing.
The results support the hypothesis that Arabic orthography is more difficult than Hebrew orthography for participants who can read both languages and that this difficulty has its strongest effects in the left visual field.
The characteristics of arabic orthography slow its processing.
The results indicate that Arabic speakers process Arabic orthography slower than Hebrew orthography (2nd language) and suggest that this is due to the complexity of Arabic Orthography.
Correlates of Reading Fluency in Arabic: Diglossic and Orthographic Factors
Arabic native speaking children are born into a unique linguistic context called diglossia (Ferguson, word, 14, 47–56, [1959]). In this context, children grow up speaking a Spoken Arabic Vernacular
Metalinguistic Awareness and Reading Performance: A Cross Language Comparison
It is concluded that native Arabic speakers have more difficulty in processing Arabic orthography than Hebrew monolinguals and bilinguals have in processing Hebrew orthography, and it is suggested that this is due to the additional visual complexity of Arabic Orthography.
New evidence for phonological processing during visual word recognition: the case of Arabic.
  • S. Bentin, Raphiq Ibrahim
  • Linguistics, Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 1996
Data support a combination between a cascade-type process, in which partial products of the grapheme-to-phoneme translation activate phonological units in the lexicon, and an interactive model, inWhich the activated lexical units feed back, shaping the prelexical phonological computation process.
Is Literary Arabic a Second Language for Native Arab Speakers?: Evidence from Semantic Priming Study
The conclusion is that, despite the intensive daily use adult native Arabic speakers make of SA and LA, and despite their shared origin, the two languages retain their status as first and second languages in the cognitive system.
How Initial Fixation Position Influences Visual Word Recognition: A Comparison of French and Arabic
The results show that, contrary to both the hemispheric specialization and reading habit hypotheses, the average initial fixation curves for Arabic are asymmetric neither to the left nor to the right but depend on the morphological structure of the stimuli, thus lending support to the lexical constraint hypothesis.
Reading Proficiency and Orthography Evidence from Hebrew and English
We conducted two experiments to test whether the orthography of readers’ first or second languages affects their reading time and comprehension in each. In both experiments, very skilled bilinguals
Word recognition and basic cognitive processes among reading-disabled and normal readers in Arabic
This study investigated word identification inArabic and basic cognitive processes inreading-disabled (RD) and normal readers of thesame chronological age, and in younger normalreaders at the same
Reading Arabic texts: Effects of text type, reader type and vowelization
While much is known about Latin orthography little is known about Arabic orthography. This study investigates the effect of vowels on reading accuracy in Arabic orthography. Participants were 64