Perceptual Restoration of Missing Speech Sounds

  title={Perceptual Restoration of Missing Speech Sounds},
  author={Richard M. Warren},
  pages={392 - 393}
When an extraneous sound (such as a cough or tone) completely replaces a speech sound in a recorded sentence, listeners believe they hear the missing sound. The extraneous sound seems to occur during another portion of the sentence without interfering with the intelligibility of any phoneme. If silence replaces a speech sound, the gap is correctly localized and the absence of the speech sound detected. 
Phonemic restoration : The brain creates missing speech sounds
Under certain conditions, sounds actually missing from a speech signal can be synthesized by the brain and clearly heard. This illusory phenomenon, known as the phonemic restoration effect, reveals
Speech perception and phonemic restorations
When a speech sound in a sentence is replaced completely by an extraneous sound (such as a cough or tone), the listene restores the missing sound on the bases of both prior and subsequent context.
Phonemic restorations based on subsequent context
Earlier experiments have shown that when one or more speech sounds in a sentence are replaced by a noise meeting certain criteria, the listener mislocalizes the extraneous sound and believes he hears
Auditory Induction: Perceptual Synthesis of Absent Sounds
Phonemic restorations appear to be a specialized application to speech of the much broader phenomenon of auditory induction, which helps maintain stable auditory perception in the authors' frequently noisy environment.
Phonemic Restoration of The Musical Sound With The Ephraim And Malah Noise Suppressor
Under certain conditions, sounds actually missing from a speech signal can be synthesized by the brain and clearly heard. This illusory phenomenon, known as the phonemic restoration effect, reveals
Listening to speech in the presence of other sounds
  • C. Darwin
  • Physics
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2007
The separation of sounds is arousing substantial attention in psychoacoustics and in computer science and an effective solution to the problem of separating sounds would have important practical applications.
Increasing the intelligibility of speech through multiple phonemic restorations
Outside of the laboratory, listening conditions are often less than ideal, and when attending to sounds from a particular source, portions are often obliterated by extraneous noises. However,
Effects of amplitude ramps on phonemic restoration of compressed speech with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners
The combined results imply that hearing aid compression might have detrimental effects on phonemic restoration; however, more data is needed to determine how applicable these results would be to hearing-impaired listeners.
Phonemic restoration in sensorineural hearing loss does not depend on baseline speech perception scores.
  • D. Başkent
  • Physics
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 2010
This analysis shows that hearing impairment may affect top-down restoration of speech and correlations with mild and moderate hearing impairment were observed to differ than with normal hearing.


Auditory Sequence: Confusion of Patterns Other Than Speech or Music
The temporal pattern of four successive sounds could not be recognized even when the duration of each sound was considerably longer than either the average phoneme in normal discourse or the notes of melodies.
Perception of Sequence in Auditory Events
A series of tape-recorded sentences were presented to various groups of listeners, totalling 164. During each sentence an extraneous sound was present on the recording, and the listener had to
Supported by PHS grant NB05998-03 and by the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Graduate School. I thank C. J. Obusek for assistance