Perceptual Restoration of Missing Speech Sounds

@article{Warren1970PerceptualRO,
  title={Perceptual Restoration of Missing Speech Sounds},
  author={R. M. Warren},
  journal={Science},
  year={1970},
  volume={167},
  pages={392 - 393}
}
When an extraneous sound (such as a cough or tone) completely replaces a speech sound in a recorded sentence, listeners believe they hear the missing sound. The extraneous sound seems to occur during another portion of the sentence without interfering with the intelligibility of any phoneme. If silence replaces a speech sound, the gap is correctly localized and the absence of the speech sound detected. 
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Supported by PHS grant NB05998-03 and by the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Graduate School. I thank C. J. Obusek for assistance