Perceptual Restoration of Missing Speech Sounds

@article{Warren1970PerceptualRO,
  title={Perceptual Restoration of Missing Speech Sounds},
  author={Richard M. Warren},
  journal={Science},
  year={1970},
  volume={167},
  pages={392 - 393}
}
When an extraneous sound (such as a cough or tone) completely replaces a speech sound in a recorded sentence, listeners believe they hear the missing sound. The extraneous sound seems to occur during another portion of the sentence without interfering with the intelligibility of any phoneme. If silence replaces a speech sound, the gap is correctly localized and the absence of the speech sound detected. 
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  • 2010
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This analysis shows that hearing impairment may affect top-down restoration of speech and correlations with mild and moderate hearing impairment were observed to differ than with normal hearing.
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References

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TLDR
The temporal pattern of four successive sounds could not be recognized even when the duration of each sound was considerably longer than either the average phoneme in normal discourse or the notes of melodies.
Perception of Sequence in Auditory Events
A series of tape-recorded sentences were presented to various groups of listeners, totalling 164. During each sentence an extraneous sound was present on the recording, and the listener had to
Supported by PHS grant NB05998-03 and by the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Graduate School. I thank C. J. Obusek for assistance