Perception of six basic emotions in music

  title={Perception of six basic emotions in music},
  author={Christine Mohn and Heike Argstatter and F W Wilker},
  journal={Psychology of Music},
  pages={503 - 517}
A test of the ability to perceive six basic emotions (happiness, anger, disgust, surprise, sadness, and fear) in music was presented to 115 participants. Eighteen musical segments, lasting 3–5 seconds, were designed for this test using a variety of solo instruments. The results show that six basic emotions are perceivable in musical segments previously unknown to the listeners, although there was large variability in the percentage of correct classification of each of the segments comprising… 

Tables from this paper

In a cross-cultural study, eighteen musical segments, representing six basic emotions (happiness, anger, disgust, surprise, sadness, and fear) were presented to subjects from Western Europe and Asia.
While the intimate connection between music and emotion has been variously studied, the focus has predominantly been on Western classical music. Different musical features have often been linked to
Perception of basic emotions in music: Culture-specific or multicultural?
The perception of basic emotions such as happy/sad seems to be a human invariant and as such detached from musical experience. On the other hand, there is evidence for cultural specificity:
An Interactive Approach to Emotional Expression Through Musical Cues
Previous literature suggests that structural and expressive cues affect the emotion expressed in music. However, only a few systematic explorations of cues have been done, usually focussing on a few
Basic emotions expressed in music: factor analyses on intensity ratings by non-musical professional Chinese university students
This study explored emotional domains through a dimensional approach based on the intensity ratings on the emotion perceived in music, and offered evidence to delineate basic musical emotions into seven domains.
Evidence for early arousal-based differentiation of emotions in children's musical production.
Differentiation of emotions by 5-year-old children was mainly driven by arousal of the target emotion, with differentiation based on both valence and arousal at 7 years, and the results indicate that the developmental trajectory of emotion understanding in music may differ from the developmental trajectories in other domains.
Nonmusicians Express Emotions in Musical Productions Using Conventional Cues
Expert musicians use a number of expressive cues to communicate specific emotions in musical performance. In turn, listeners readily identify the intended emotions. Previous studies of cue
Emotional experience in music fosters 18-month-olds' emotion-action understanding: a training study.
The findings suggest a privileged role of musical experience in prompting infants to form emotional representations, which support their understanding of the association between affective states and action.
Developmental change and cross-domain links in vocal and musical emotion recognition performance in childhood.
Age-related increases in overall recognition performance are revealed with significant correlations across vocal and musical conditions at all developmental stages and that sensitivity to emotions in auditory stimuli is influenced by age and gender.
Music education in junior high school: Perception of emotions conveyed by music and mental imagery in students who attend the standard or musical curriculum
The ability to perceive emotions conveyed by music and recognize multiple and mixed emotions improves with age. Several studies have found that mental imagery is one of the mechanisms that underlie


Is Recognition of Emotion in Music Performance an Aspect of Emotional Intelligence
Expression of emotion in music performance is a form of nonverbal communication to which people may be differentially receptive. The recently developed Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence
Happy, sad, scary and peaceful musical excerpts for research on emotions
Three experiments were conducted in order to validate 56 musical excerpts that conveyed four intended emotions (happiness, sadness, threat and peacefulness). In Experiment 1, the musical clips were
Multidimensional scaling of emotional responses to music: The effect of musical expertise and of the duration of the excerpts
Musically trained and untrained listeners were required to listen to 27 musical excerpts and to group those that conveyed a similar emotional meaning (Experiment 1). The groupings were transformed
Recognition of emotion in Japanese, Western, and Hindustani music by Japanese listeners 1
Japanese listeners rated the expression of joy, anger and sadness in Japanese, Western, and Hindustani music. Excerpts were also rated for tempo, loudness, and com- plexity. Listeners were sensitive
Universal Recognition of Three Basic Emotions in Music
A crosscultural study with participants from a native African population (Mafa) and Western participants, with both groups being naive to the music of the other respective culture, shows that consonance and permanent sensory dissonance universally influence the perceived pleasantness of music.
The Perception of Emotional Expression in Music: Evidence from Infants, Children and Adults
Two studies investigated the development of the perception of emotion in music. In Study 1, preschool children and adults matched nine pieces of music to five photographed facial expressions (happy,
Emotional Expression in Music Performance: Between the Performer's Intention and the Listener's Experience
Nine professional musicians were instructed to perform short melodies using various instruments - the violin, electric guitar, flute, and singing voice - so as to communicate specific emotional
Emotional ratings of music excerpts in the western art music repertoire and their self-organization in the Kohonen neural network
Suggestions for basic emotional music excerpts in the western art music repertoire were collected through a survey that was sent to about 500 music professionals. A total of 78 music excerpts were
Emotion perceived and emotion felt: Same and different
Abstract The goal of the present study was to examine the relationships and differences between emotion perceived (i.e., the emotional quality expressed by music) and emotion felt (i.e., the
A Cross-Cultural Investigation of the Perception of Emotion in Music: Psychophysical and Cultural Cues
Studies of the link between music and emotion have primarily focused on listeners' sensitivity to emotion in the music of their own culture. This sensitivity may reflect listeners' enculturation to