Perception and misperception of bias in human judgment

@article{Pronin2007PerceptionAM,
  title={Perception and misperception of bias in human judgment},
  author={Emily Pronin},
  journal={Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
  year={2007},
  volume={11},
  pages={37-43}
}
  • E. Pronin
  • Published 31 January 2007
  • Psychology
  • Trends in Cognitive Sciences

Figures from this paper

Confronting bias in judging: A framework for addressing psychological biases in decision making

Cognitive biases are systematic tendencies of thought which undermine accurate or fair reasoning. An allied concept is that of ‘implicit bias’, which are biases directed at members of particular

Bias Blind Spot: Structure, Measurement, and Consequences

TLDR
The development and validation of an instrument to measure individual differences in the propensity to exhibit the bias blind spot that is unidimensional, internally consistent, has high test-retest reliability, and is discriminated from measures of intelligence, decision-making ability, and personality traits related to self-esteem, self-enhancement, and self-presentation are reported.

Cognitive sophistication does not attenuate the bias blind spot.

TLDR
In 2 studies, replicable bias blind spots are found with respect to many of the classic cognitive biases studied in the heuristics and biases literature (e.g., Tversky & Kahneman, 1974).

Motivated open-mindedness: Rectify biased perceptions in preparation for deliberation

The research on naïve realism suggests that people have a tendency of impugning opponents’ cognitive biases and interacting with them in conflict-escalating approaches. Taking this to be a basic

Mindreading: Judgments About Intentionality and Motives in Dispositional Inference

Judgments about the intentionality of other people's behavior are central to social perception. Perceivers typically explain a target person's intentional behavior in terms of the target's motives.

Agency and self-other asymmetries in perceived bias and shortcomings: Replications of the Bias Blind Spot and link to free will beliefs

Bias Blind Spot (BBS) is the phenomenon that people tend to perceive themselves as less susceptible to biases than others. In three pre-registered experiments (overall N = 969), we replicated two

When Disagreement Gets Ugly: Perceptions of Bias and the Escalation of Conflict

TLDR
Evidence is provided for a “bias-perception conflict spiral,” whereby people who disagree perceive each other as biased, and those perceptions in turn lead them to take conflict-escalating actions against each other (which in turn engender further perceptions of bias, continuing the spiral).

Developing the Bias Blind Spot: Increasing Skepticism towards Others

TLDR
Two experiments with 7- to 10-year-olds suggest that, although the bias blind spot exists as soon as children recognize other-committed biases, what changes over development is how skeptical children are towards others.

Biased decision-making: developing an understanding of how positive and negative relationships may skew judgments.

TLDR
It is suggested that children are better at recognizing that a judgment may have been biased than predicting that one will be, and that they may understand that negative relationships may skew judgments before positive ones.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 79 REFERENCES

Objectivity in the eye of the beholder: divergent perceptions of bias in self versus others.

TLDR
Evidence of this asymmetry between self-perception and social perception and its underlying causes is reviewed and its relation to other psychological phenomena and to interpersonal and intergroup conflict is discussed.

The Bias Blind Spot: Perceptions of Bias in Self Versus Others

Three studies suggest that individuals see the existence and operation of cognitive and motivational biases much more in others than in themselves. Study 1 provides evidence from three surveys that

Peering Into the Bias Blind Spot: People’s Assessments of Bias in Themselves and Others

TLDR
An asymmetry in assessing objectivity and bias in the self versus others is explored and two empirical consequences of this asymmetry are explored.

The Perceiver as Perceived: Everyday Intuitions About the Correspondence Bias

The research examined people's intuitions about the correspondence bias, or the tendency to favor dispositional rather than situational explanations of behavior. In 3 studies, constrained actors

Considering the opposite: a corrective strategy for social judgment.

TLDR
In two separate but conceptually parallel experiments, the induction of a consider-the-opposite strategy had greater corrective effect than more demand-laden alternative instructions to be as fair and unbiased as possible.

Enhancement Bias in Descriptions of Self and Others

Self-enhancement bias is the tendency to describe oneself more positively than a normative criterion would predict. This article reviews the common-rater and common-target paradigms for the

Understanding Misunderstanding: Social Psychological Perspectives

Researchers in many subdisciplines of psychology have made their reputations cleverly documenting the various cognitive, perceptual, and motivational biases that systematically distort human judgment

Social Cognition: Understanding Self and Others

Introduction: What Does It Mean to ""Know"" Something? 1. Naive Realism: The Construction of Reality in the Pursuit of Social Knowledge 2. Automaticity and Control 3. Categories and Category

The Smell of Bias: What Instigates Correction Processes in Social Judgments?

Participants were either informed that contextual influences bias their judgment and asked to correct for the unspecified influence (blatant warning) or they were instructed that they should correct
...