Perceiving is believing: a Bayesian approach to explaining the positive symptoms of schizophrenia

@article{Fletcher2009PerceivingIB,
  title={Perceiving is believing: a Bayesian approach to explaining the positive symptoms of schizophrenia},
  author={Paul C. Fletcher and ChrisD . Frith},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neuroscience},
  year={2009},
  volume={10},
  pages={48-58}
}
Advances in cognitive neuroscience offer us new ways to understand the symptoms of mental illness by uniting basic neurochemical and neurophysiological observations with the conscious experiences that characterize these symptoms. Cognitive theories about the positive symptoms of schizophrenia — hallucinations and delusions — have tended to treat perception and belief formation as distinct processes. However, recent advances in computational neuroscience have led us to consider the unusual… Expand
The Computational Anatomy of Psychosis
TLDR
It is suggested that both pervasive trait abnormalities and florid failures of inference in the psychotic state can be linked to factors controlling post-synaptic gain – such as NMDA receptor function and (dopaminergic) neuromodulation. Expand
Bayesian inference, predictive coding and delusions
This paper considers psychotic symptoms in terms of false inferences or beliefs. It is based on the notion that the brain is an organ of inference that actively constructs hypotheses to explain orExpand
Explaining Delusions: Reducing Uncertainty Through Basic and Computational Neuroscience
TLDR
It is argued that organisms strive to minimize uncertainty about their future states by forming and maintaining a set of beliefs that are robust, but flexible, and if uncertainty is generated endogenously, beliefs begin to depart from consensual reality and can manifest into delusions. Expand
The Bayesian Brain and Psychoanalytic Dimensions of Hyper-salience in Psychosis
Purpose of Review To summarize the Bayesian model of the brain as it has been applied to hyper-salient experiences in psychosis such as ideas of reference (in particular, the attribution of personalExpand
Thinking, believing, and hallucinating self in schizophrenia.
TLDR
It is argued that delusions and hallucinations are inferences produced under extraordinary conditions and are both statistically and experientially as real for patients as other mental events, and might be the only ones available to minimise prediction error. Expand
Toward a neurobiology of delusions
TLDR
It is suggested that delusions result from aberrations in how brain circuits specify hierarchical predictions, and how they compute and respond to prediction errors, which can affect perception, memory, bodily agency and social learning. Expand
Computational Models of Hallucinations
TLDR
This chapter describes some recent theoretical studies on four categories of positive symptoms of schizophrenia: neurodynamics, noise, disconnectivity, and Bayesian models of hallucinations. Expand
Can circular inference relate the neuropathological and behavioral aspects of schizophrenia?
TLDR
It is argued that circular inference, a computational framework proposed as a potential explanation for various schizophrenia symptoms, could help end this debate and appears to be compatible with a variety of pathophysiological theories of schizophrenia while simulating the behavioral symptoms. Expand
Delusions and theories of belief
TLDR
The origins of the cognitive neuropsychiatric approach are traced, a tentative framework to overcome challenges and suggest directions for future research are proposed. Expand
Dopamine, cognitive biases and assessment of certainty: A neurocognitive model of delusions.
TLDR
It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 141 REFERENCES
A simple (or simplistic?) cognitive model for schizophrenia.
  • D. Hemsley
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Behaviour research and therapy
  • 1993
TLDR
It is argued that the link between information processing disturbances and biological abnormalities may be facilitated by the use of paradigms derived from animal learning theory (latent inhibition and Kamin's blocking effect) and on both tasks the pattern of performance of acute schizophrenics is consistent with the cognitive model. Expand
Information Processing and Schizophrenia
This paper will consider the relevance of studies of abnormalities of perception and cognition for an understanding of schizophrenia. It will present a model of the disorder, based on a disturbanceExpand
Reasoning in Deluded Schizophrenic and Paranoid Patients: Biases in Performance on a Probabilistic Inference Task
An experiment is described in which deluded subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or of delusional disorder (paranoia) were compared with a nondeluded psychiatric control group and a normalExpand
The formation of maintenance of delusions: a Bayesian analysis.
  • D. Hemsley, P. Garety
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science
  • 1986
TLDR
This paper argues that recent research on normal-belief formation is relevant to the understanding of the establishment and maintenance of delusions and the extent to which the distortions of cognitive processes associated with delusions are content-specific or mood-specific. Expand
From prediction error to psychosis: ketamine as a pharmacological model of delusions
TLDR
It is suggested that ketamine may provide an appropriate model to investigate the formative stages of symptom evolution in schizophrenia, and thereby provide a window into the earliest and otherwise inaccessible aspects of the disease process. Expand
Disorders of Agency in Schizophrenia Correlate with an Inability to Compensate for the Sensory Consequences of Actions
TLDR
A clear correlation is found between the strength of delusions of influence and the ability of schizophrenia patients to cancel out such self-induced retinal information in motion perception, reflecting direct experimental evidence supporting the view that delusion of influence in schizophrenia might be due to a specific deficit in the perceptual compensation of the sensory consequences of one's own actions. Expand
Disrupted prediction-error signal in psychosis: evidence for an associative account of delusions.
TLDR
The results support a neurobiological theory of delusion formation that implicates aberrant prediction-error signalling, disrupted attentional allocation and associative learning in the formation of delusional beliefs. Expand
Can neuroscience explain consciousness
Cognitive neuroscience aspires to explain how the brain produces conscious states. Many people think this aspiration is threatened by the subjective nature of introspective reports, as well as byExpand
Cognitive neuropsychiatry and delusional belief.
  • M. Coltheart
  • Medicine
  • Quarterly journal of experimental psychology
  • 2007
TLDR
This paper describes some of the forms of delusional belief that have been examined from this perspective and offers a general two-deficit cognitive-neuropsychiatric account of delusional believe. Expand
Persecutory delusions: a review and theoretical integration.
TLDR
It is argued that biases in this cycle cause negative events to be attributed to external agents and hence contribute to the building of a paranoid world view, and a new integrative model is proposed that builds on this work. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...