Peptides of the Adipokinetic Hormone/Red Pigment‐Concentrating Hormone Family

@article{Gde2009PeptidesOT,
  title={Peptides of the Adipokinetic Hormone/Red Pigment‐Concentrating Hormone Family},
  author={Gerd G{\"a}de},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={2009},
  volume={1163}
}
  • G. Gäde
  • Published 1 April 2009
  • Biology
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Peptides of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH)/red pigment‐concentrating hormone (RPCH) family in insects are involved in the mobilization of stored macromolecules in the fat body by activating glycogen phosphorylase or triacylglycerol lipase to increase the levels of circulating metabolites (trehalose, diacylglycerols, and also proline) during periods of intense muscular activity. Here I review the biodiversity of these peptides and outline how the 47 known bioanalogues are distributed between the… 
The obesity‐related Adipokinetic hormone controls feeding and expression of neuropeptide regulators of Drosophila metabolism
TLDR
Investigations of the roles of this hormone in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster have shown that this anti-obesity factor is a central regulator of fly metabolism, and controls crucial processes such as feeding, metabolic rate, storage of energy reserves, and expression of regulatory genes from the neuropeptide hormone family, including the fly homologs of human insulin.
Molecular characterization of an adipokinetic hormone-related neuropeptide (AKH) from a mollusk.
Unique Members of the Adipokinetic Hormone Family in Butterflies and Moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera)
TLDR
The results include novel peptide structures, demonstrate structural diversity, phylogenetic trends in peptide distribution and order-specificity of Lepidoptera AKHs, and could be useful for further investigations into possible biorational insecticide development.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and adipokinetic hormone/corazonin-related peptide in the female prawn.
Mosquito Peptide Hormones: Diversity, Production, and Function.
Analysis of the lipids mobilized by adipokinetic hormones in the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)
TLDR
It seems that C16 to a slight extent and unsaturated C18 FAs mainly play a dominant role in the AKH based action, in particular linoleic acid (18:2), which repre- sents 50-60% of the total DG mobilized.
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References

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  • G. Gäde
  • Biology
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TLDR
An overview of the techniques used to obtain data on purification and structure such as high performance liquid chromatography, Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry on the AKH/RPCH family of peptides.
Structure of locust adipokinetic hormone, a neurohormone that regulates lipid utilisation during flight
TLDR
Adipokinetic hormone, isolated from locust corpora cardiaca, has been identified as a blocked pep-tide : PCA–Leu–Asn–Phe–Thr–Pro– asn–Trp–Gly–ThR–NH2, the first peptide hormone from an insect neuroendocrine organ to be fully characterised.
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TLDR
Two peptides related to locust adipokinetic hormone and crustacean red pigment concentrating hormone were isolated from the cicadas Cacama valavata and Diceroprocta semicincta and suggest that it is almost identical to the first peptide.
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  • G. Gäde
  • Biology
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TLDR
Biosynthesis, release, receptors, mode of action, inactivation, structure-activity studies, and biological functions are discussed for the various peptides.
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  • G. Gäde
  • Biology
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TLDR
An identical neuropeptide was isolated from the corpora cardiaca of two beetle species and structure-activity studies in the migratory locust and the American cockroach revealed that the peptide was poorly active, owing to its structural uniqueness.
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  • G. Gäde
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TLDR
A neuropeptide with adipokinetic activity in Locusta migratoria and hypertrehalosaemic activity in Periplaneta americana was purified by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography from the corpus cardiacum of the dragonfly, Libellula auripennis and named Lia-AKH because of its structural features and its origin from a very primitive insect order.
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