Peptides by activation of amino acids with CO on (Ni,Fe)S surfaces: implications for the origin of life.

  title={Peptides by activation of amino acids with CO on (Ni,Fe)S surfaces: implications for the origin of life.},
  author={Claudia Huber and G{\"u}nter W{\"a}chtersh{\"a}user},
  volume={281 5377},
In experiments modeling volcanic or hydrothermal settings amino acids were converted into their peptides by use of coprecipitated (Ni,Fe)S and CO in conjunction with H2S (or CH3SH) as a catalyst and condensation agent at 100 degreesC and pH 7 to 10 under anaerobic, aqueous conditions. These results demonstrate that amino acids can be activated under geochemically relevant conditions. They support a thermophilic origin of life and an early appearance of peptides in the evolution of a primordial… 

The Transformation by Catalysis of Prebiotic Chemical Systems to Useful Biochemicals: A Perspective Based on IR Spectroscopy of the Primary Chemicals: I. The Synthesis of Peptides by the Condensation of Amino Acids

It is now widely speculated that life originated at the “Black Smokers” of the undersea hydrothermal vents, where conditions exist for the formation of the primary ingredients and their subsequent

Influence of extreme thermodynamic conditions and pyrite surfaces on peptide synthesis in aqueous media.

Free energy landscapes and reaction mechanisms underlying the synthesis of diglycine in water were studied computationally and extreme temperature and pressure conditions accelerate peptidization greatly compared to the ambient bulk water environment and are shown to favor, in general, concerted versus stepwise mechanisms.

A Possible Primordial Peptide Cycle

The results support the theory of a chemoautotrophic origin of life with a CO-driven, (Fe,Ni)S-dependent primordial metabolism.

Stability of amino acids and their oligomerization under high-pressure conditions: implications for prebiotic chemistry.

The polymerization of amino acids leading to the formation of peptides and proteins is a significant problem for the origin of life. This problem stems from the instability of amino acids and the

Condensation of amino acids to form peptides in aqueous solution induced by the oxidation of sulfur(iv): An oxidative model for prebiotic peptide formation

  • Fei ChenDan Yang
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres
  • 2006
It is reported that the oxidation of sulfur (IV) can induce the condensation reaction of carboxylic acids and amines to form amides, and the condensing reaction of amino acids to form peptides, which might be a general reaction contributing to prebiotic peptide formation.

Hydrothermal biochemistry: from formaldehyde to oligopeptides

Hydrothermal reactions of formaldehyde (CH2O), which is mainly formed by CO2, are considered to be of most importance in the abiotic synthesis of complex organic molecules in chemical evolution on

Catalytic Nickel-Iron-Sulfur Clusters: From Minerals to Enzymes

The geochemical theory of the origin of life proposes that primordial, pre-biotic reactions were carried out in a metal-sulfide-rich environment similar to that found near hot springs at the ocean

Thermodynamic Impact of Mineral Surfaces on Amino Acid Polymerization: Aspartate Dimerization on Ferrihydrite, Anatase and γ-alumina

The ubiquity of amino acids in carbonaceous meteorites has suggested that amino acids are widespread in our solar system, serving as a common class of components for the chemical evolution of life.

Properties of synthetic ferrihydrite as an amino acid adsorbent and a promoter of peptide bond formation

Important characteristics of this mineral are revealed as both an adsorbent of amino acids and a promoter of peptide bond formation in ferrihydrite.



Activated acetic acid by carbon fixation on (Fe,Ni)S under primordial conditions.

In experiments modeling the reactions of the reductive acetyl-coenzyme A pathway at hydrothermal temperatures, it was found that an aqueous slurry of coprecipitated NiS and FeS converted CO and CH3SH

Peptide Formation in the Presence of Linear or Cyclic Polyphosphates

The condensation of amino-acids in aqueous solutions using various “prebiotic” condensing agents, such as cyanamide1–3, cyanoguanidine4 and dicyanamide5, is reported.

Silica, Alumina, and Clay-Catalyzed Alanine Peptide Bond Formation

Clays minerals seem to more efficiently catalyze peptide chain elongation than amino acid dimerization and the possible mechanisms of these reactions and the relevance of the results for prebiotic chemistry are discussed.

Before enzymes and templates: theory of surface metabolism.

It is proposed here that, at an early stage of evolution, there are precursor organisms drastically different from anything the authors know, and life at this early stage is autotrophic and consists of an autocatalytic metabolism confined to an essentially twodimensional monomolecular organic layer.

A Russian view of desertology.

deaerated and subsequently charged with 8 ml of deaerated and Ar-saturated water and with a solution of 480 mg (2 mmol) of Na 2 S ⅐ 9H 2 O in 2

  • a typical run a 120-ml serum bottle was charged with 278 mg