Pentoxifylline reduces the inflammatory process in diabetic rats: relationship with decreases of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase

  title={Pentoxifylline reduces the inflammatory process in diabetic rats: relationship with decreases of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase},
  author={Francisca Adilfa de Oliveira Garcia and J{\'e}ssica Farias Rebouças and Teresa Queiroz Balbino and Teresinha Gonçalves da Silva and Carlson H{\'e}lder Reis de Carvalho-J{\'u}nior and Gilberto dos Santos Cerqueira and Gerly Anne C. Brito and G S B Viana},
  journal={Journal of Inflammation (London, England)},
Studies suggest that inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are produced by adipose tissue in large quantities, in obese and especially in diabetic individuals. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions that may contribute to alleviate diabetes side effects, as neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy. This study aims to investigate PTX… 

Rolipram and pentoxifylline combination ameliorates experimental diabetic neuropathy through inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways in the dorsal root ganglion neurons.

Rolipram and/or pentoxifylline treatment dramatically increased the cAMP level, as well as suppressed DN - induced oxidative stress which was associated with decrease in LPO and ROS and increase in TAC, total thiol, CAT and SOD in DRG neurons.

Hydroxychloroquine hindering of diabetic isletopathy carries its signature on the inflammatory cytokines

HCQ showed definite favorable effects on the histological as well as the metabolic profiles in DM which may be partly attributed to its anti-inflammatory action.

Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate reduces alloxan-induced kidney damage by decreasing nox4, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and metalloproteinase-2

The results show that the NFκB inhibitor PDTC reduces renal damage through reduction of Nox4, iNOS, macrophages, and MMP-2 in the alloxan-induced diabetic model and suggest that PDTC inhibits allxan kidney damage via antioxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

Effect of pentoxifylline on kidney damage induced by nitrosamine in male rats

It seems that pentoxifylline administration improved kidney injury induced by nitrosamine in rats.

Kaempferol Alleviates the Interleukin-1β-Induced Inflammation in Rat Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes via Suppression of NF-κB

Kaempferol, as a novel therapeutic active agent, may prevent, stop, or retard the progression of OA by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway.

Therapeutic effect of pentoxifylline on reproductive parameters in diabetic male mice

It is suggested that intraperitoneal administration of PTX is a potentially beneficial agent to reduce testicular damage and improves sperm parameters in diabetic mice by decreasing the ratio of apoptosis.

Are the Protean Effects of Pentoxifylline in the Therapy of Diabetes and Its Complications Still Relevant?

  • D. Bell
  • Medicine
    Diabetes Therapy
  • 2021
Surprisingly, pentoxifylline modestly improves insulin resistance through improvements in capillary blood flow as well as beta cell function and decreased hepatic glucose production.

Pentoxifylline Alleviates Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Possibly via Inhibiting TLR 4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway

It is found that administration of PTX notably improved neurological function and decreased brain edema at both 24 and 72 h following SAH, and may be the first time that PTX has been shown to play a neuroprotective role in EBI after SAH.

Pentoxifylline for Renal Protection in Diabetic Kidney Disease. A Model of Old Drugs for New Horizons

The use of pentoxifylline as renoprotective therapy for patients with diabetic kidney disease represents a new example of drug repositioning and has shown significant antiproteinuric effects and a delay in the loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate, although at the present time there is no definitive evidence regarding renal outcomes.

Scopoletin Supplementation Ameliorates Steatosis and Inflammation in Diabetic Mice

It is suggested that scopoletin protects against diabetes‐induced steatosis and inflammation by inhibiting lipid biosynthesis and TLR4‐MyD88 pathways.



Chlorpropamide treatment restores the reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema and pleural exudate volume in diabetic rats

Chlorpropamide treatment by restoring β-cell function, reducing blood sugar levels, and improving glucose tolerance might be contributing to the correction of the reduced inflammatory response tested as paw edema and pleural exudate in n-STZ diabetic rats.

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Improves Renal Tubulointerstitial Hypoxia of the Diabetic Rat Kidney

PTX attenuates tubular hypoxia in the diabetic kidney by reducing the increased protein creatinine ratio in diabetic rats at 8 weeks and attenuating HIF-1α in renal tubule cells.

Diabetes mellitus triggers oxidative stress in the liver of alloxan-treated rats: a mechanism for diabetic chronic liver disease.

Whether Diabetes mellitus chemically induced by alloxan is capable of changing, in the long term, the oxidative balance in the liver tissue of rats is investigated, which is characterized by increased concentration of reactive oxygen species in tissue and significant reduction in their antioxidant defenses.

Glibenclamide attenuates myocardial injury by lipopolysaccharides in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

It is concluded that glibenclamide could attenuate myocardial injury induced by LPS challenge in STZ-mice, which was possibly related to inhibiting inflammation through Nalp3 inflammasomes.

Pretreatment with Pentoxifylline and N-Acetylcysteine in Liver Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Renal Injury

Pretreatment with PTX and NAC before liver IR may be useful to ameliorate renal oxidative damage by preservation of cellular GSH concentration and a reduction in MDA levels.

Pentoxifylline Ameliorates Renal Tumor Necrosis Factor Expression, Sodium Retention, and Renal Hypertrophy in Diabetic Rats

The proximal tubule is an important site of TNF production during diabetes and PTF is an effective therapy for preventing the pathological changes accompanying early diabetic nephropathy.

Cytokine profiles during carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in rat muscle and hind paw.

Pentoxifylline inhibits endotoxin-induced NF-kappa B activation and associated production of proinflammatory cytokines.

In conclusion, PTX suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-6 in rat intestine, and enhanced the endotoxin-induced production of IL-10.