Ocular, corneal, and internal aberrations in eyes with keratoconus, forme fruste keratoconus, and healthy eyes
PURPOSE To determine pachymetric, aberrometric, and topometric indices in patients with definite and subclinical keratoconus and the validity of these indices in the diagnosis of keratoconus. METHODS We evaluated 262 keratoconic and 97 healthy eyes in this study. Pentacam HR examination was performed for all participants, and the data of all pachymetric, aberrometric, and topometric indices was extracted for the study population. RESULTS The average of all evaluated pachymetric and topometric indices and the 3rd and 5th order vertical coma aberrations showed a significant difference between the study groups (p < 0.001). Belin/Ambrosio Deviation Display (BAD_D), Index of Vertical Asymmetry (IVA), Index of Surface Variance (ISV), and 5th order vertical coma aberration were identified as the best diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of subclinical keratoconus (R (2) = 0.65, p <0.001), and BAD_D, mean keratometry and 3rd order vertical coma aberration were identified as the best diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of definite keratoconus (R (2) = 0.91, p <0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the above-mentioned models were 83.6% and 96.9%, and 97.9% and 96.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION Simultaneous evaluation of BAD_D, 5th order vertical coma aberration, IVA, and ISV, especially when the pattern of the corneal curvature is normal, can detect subclinical keratoconus with high sensitivity and specificity. As for definite keratoconus, each of the BAD_D, mean keratometry, and 3rd order vertical coma aberration indices has a desirable diagnostic validity. However, the aforementioned indices do not negate the importance of widely recognized and acceptable indices like keratometry and central corneal thickness.