Penises not required: a systematic review of the potential for human papillomavirus horizontal transmission that is non-sexual or does not include penile penetration.

@article{Liu2016PenisesNR,
  title={Penises not required: a systematic review of the potential for human papillomavirus horizontal transmission that is non-sexual or does not include penile penetration.},
  author={Zhiyue Liu and Tasnuva Rashid and Alan G Nyitray},
  journal={Sexual health},
  year={2016},
  volume={13 1},
  pages={
          10-21
        }
}
The primary mode of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission is through penetrative sex; however, there is evidence of other modes of transmission. No systematic review was found that focussed on HPV horizontal transmission that is not penocentric. A systematic review of the literature by searching Medline (Ovid), PubMed (NLM) and Embase (Ovid) was conducted to retrieve articles published from 1946 to March 2014. Studies that suggested evidence of non-sexual or non-penetrative sexual… 
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In multivariable analyses, being highly sexually exposed, being HIV infected, and having a penile HPV infection were positively associated with incident anal HPV detection; those reporting more sex partners had a nonsignificantly increased risk of HPV detection.
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