Penile Anatomy and Hypotheses of Erectile Function in the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis): Muscular Eversion and Elastic Retraction

@article{Kelly2013PenileAA,
  title={Penile Anatomy and Hypotheses of Erectile Function in the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis): Muscular Eversion and Elastic Retraction},
  author={D. A. Kelly},
  journal={The Anatomical Record},
  year={2013},
  volume={296}
}
  • D. A. Kelly
  • Published 2013
  • Medicine, Biology
  • The Anatomical Record
The intromittent organs of most amniotes contain variable‐volume hydrostatic skeletons that are stored in a flexible state and inflate with fluid before or during copulation. However, the penis in male crocodilians is notable because its shaft does not seem to change either its shape or bending stiffness as blood enters its vascular spaces before copulation. Here I report that crocodilians may have evolved a mechanism for penile shaft erection that does not require inflation and detumescence… Expand
Glans inflation morphology and female cloaca copulatory interactions of the male American alligator phallus†
TLDR
The gross structure and material properties of the male American alligator phallic glans dynamically interact and consistently inflate during copulation to produce a complex, species-specific shape that interfaces with the female cloaca to maintain intromission and aid gamete transfer. Expand
Histological Investigation of the Adult Alligator Phallic Sulcus
TLDR
Observations establish that the sulcus spermaticus is far more than a simple furrow in the phallus shaft for sperm conduction: it contains elements that form a complex functional gamete delivery system. Expand
ABLATION OF SULCUS SPERMATICUS FOR BIRTH CONTROL SURGERY IN MUGGER CROCODILES(CROCODYLUS PALUSTRIS)
TLDR
It is revealed that ablation of sulcus spermaticus could be followed as a birth control surgery in male mugger crocodiles without affecting the welfare and breeding behavior. Expand
Morphological characteristics regulating phallic glans engorgement in the American alligator.
TLDR
Together, the gross and histological examination of the American alligator phallic glans suggests that its tissues are arranged in a manner that would allow vascular inflation to expand the glans to a specific and repeatable shape, and potentially release secretory products into the female reproductive tract. Expand
Histological Investigation of the Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) Phallic Glans
TLDR
This work investigated the gross and cellular morphology of the Nile crocodile glans characterizing tissues types and structural morphologies to better predict how these male tissues may interact with those of the female and hypothesize how these glans characteristics may interaction with female tissues during copulation to increase the chance of successful gamete transfer. Expand
Morphological changes associated with Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) phallic glans inflation
TLDR
It is suggested how these dynamic male structures may interact with structures of the female cloacal urodeum and how these morphological changes, in concert with the varying material properties of the structural tissue compartments visualized in this study, aid copulatory gamete transfer and resulting fecundity. Expand
Correlation between increased postpubertal phallic growth and the initiation of cranial sexual dimorphisms in male Morelet's crocodile.
TLDR
This bodily manifestation of puberty other than those changes observed in the reproductive tracts is a novel observation for crocodylians and lays a foundation for further study among species of how changing endocrine signaling within sexually maturing males may also influence a broader range of secondary sex characteristics. Expand
Genital interactions during simulated copulation among marine mammals
TLDR
It is suggested that sexual selection influences morphological shape and mechanical interactions during copulation influence the shape of genitalia and affect fertility, and has broad applications to other taxa and species conservation. Expand
Intromittent Organ Morphology and Biomechanics: Defining the Physical Challenges of Copulation.
  • D. A. Kelly
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Integrative and comparative biology
  • 2016
TLDR
This review surveys mechanical strategies that animals may use for intromittent organ function during intromission and copulation, and discusses how they may perform when their tissues experience stresses in tension, compression, bending, torsion, or shear. Expand
Morphology of the copulatory organ in Ortalis canicollis (Aves: Cracidae) and early evolution of the phallus in birds
TLDR
Some light is shed on morphological aspects of the phallus that contributed to understand its evolution in birds and it has disappeared in Megapodius, Leipoa and Neoaves. Expand
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  • D. A. Kelly
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Artificial inflation of corpora cavernosa from the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) showed that the expansion of the tunica albuginea during erection increases both components of flexuralExpand
Explosive eversion and functional morphology of the duck penis supports sexual conflict in waterfowl genitalia
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The hypothesis that duck vaginal complexity functions to exclude the penis during forced copulations, and coevolved with the waterfowl penis via antagonistic sexual conflict is supported. Expand
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Together these structural and functional features—whether adaptations, exaptations, or epiphenomena—combine to produce a highly effective mechanical defense. Expand
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It is shown that the erection mechanism of ratites is lymphatic, confirming that the evolutionary transition to lymphatic erection occurred in the last common ancestor of Aves. Expand
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TLDR
A histological investigation of the complex functional anatomy of the juvenile male American alligator phallus, including fibrous and vascular erectile structures, a variety of secretory epithelium morphologies, and observed immune cells is presented. Expand
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TLDR
The urodaeum is proposed as the primary site for postrenal modification of urine in C. porosus, the largest chamber, capable of storing large quantities of urine, and is lined with an epithelium with the capacity for transepithelial water and ion exchange. Expand
Turtle and mammal penis designs are anatomically convergent
  • D. A. Kelly
  • Biology, Medicine
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TLDR
It is shown that the hydraulic skeleton in the turtle penis is reinforced by an axial orthogonal array of collagen fibres, which implies that there is a limited number of mechanical designs for an inflatable structure with high bending stiffness. Expand
Sexual dimorphisms in a copulatory neuromuscular system in the green anole lizard
TLDR
Similar to other vertebrate models, parallels between morphology and function exist in the green anole copulatory system, and the CF was injected with biocytin in both sexes to eliminate its motoneurons from the analysis and gain a more accurate representation of the TPN motoneuron pool. Expand
The Alligator and its Allies
PROF. REESE, of West Virginia University, [is best known as an embryologist, and the author of a memoir on the development of Alligator mississippiensis, published a few years ago in the SmithsonianExpand
Engulfing mechanics of fin whales
TLDR
Calculations of forces contributing to the expansion of the buccal cavity show that the engulfing process in feeding can be powered solely by the speed of swimming. Expand
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