Penicillin: the medicine with the greatest impact on therapeutic outcomes

  title={Penicillin: the medicine with the greatest impact on therapeutic outcomes},
  author={Nelson Kardos and Arnold L. Demain},
  journal={Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology},
The principal point of this paper is that the discovery of penicillin and the development of the supporting technologies in microbiology and chemical engineering leading to its commercial scale production represent it as the medicine with the greatest impact on therapeutic outcomes. Our nomination of penicillin for the top therapeutic molecule rests on two lines of evidence concerning the impact of this event: (1) the magnitude of the therapeutic outcomes resulting from the clinical application… 
Prelude to rational scale-up of penicillin production: a scale-down study
A mathematical model including the information from both computational fluid dynamics and chemical reaction dynamics will be established for the prediction of detailed information over the entire period of the fermentation process and thereby for the optimization of penicillin production, and subsequently also benefiting other fermentation products.
Historical Review of the Penicillin and Related Compounds (β – Lactams)
  • L. Abd
  • Biology
    Al Mustansiriyah Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • 2018
This survey discusses the event that occurred in the progress of the penicillin, and beta-lactam from discovery to implementation as a therapeutic agent in order to overcome Antibiotic resistance in bacteria.
A review on β-lactam antibiotic drug resistance
The contributions and obstacles of studies that estimate the ailment burden on account of antibiotic resistance and research that estimates the monetary burden of resistance are overview and the contribution and obstacles are talked.
Drug Development for Drug-Resistant Pathogens
This chapter provides a brief history of small-molecule antibiotics from the discovery of penicillin to the present day and reviews the current antibacterial clinical pipeline and most recent drug launches.
Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of a Natural Clay Mineral from British Columbia, Canada
The known spectrum of activity of Kisameet clay (KC) is extended by demonstrating its efficacy against two major fungal pathogens, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, and suggesting a positive role for divalent and trivalent cations, including iron and aluminum, in bacterial inhibition by KC.
Thinking Outside the Bug: Molecular Targets and Strategies to Overcome Antibiotic Resistance
In this review, antibiotic resistance is discussed and new options for antibiotic discovery are discussed, focusing in particular on new alternatives aiming to disarm the bacteria or empower the host to avoid disease onset.
Insights in the Biosynthesis of Griseofulvin and Echinocandin B, two Antifungal Compounds from Ascomycetes
This dissertation characterized the key steps in the biosynthesis of the natural product echinocandin B and showed the potential for re-engineering of the pathway to produce “unnatural” natural compounds.
A new antibiotic kills pathogens without detectable resistance
The properties of this compound suggest a path towards developing antibiotics that are likely to avoid development of resistance, as well as several methods to grow uncultured organisms by cultivation in situ or by using specific growth factors.
Ernst Chain: a great man of science
This paper is a tribute to the scientific accomplishments of Ernst Chain and the influence he exerted over the fields of industrial microbiology and biotechnology. Chain is the father of the modern


Recent advances in penicillin fermentation.
  • M. J. Johnson
  • Biology
    Bulletin of the World Health Organization
  • 1952
Progress has been made in recent years in knowledge of the fermentation of penicillin fermentation about the selection of suitable cultures and about the procedures for producing highyielding mutant mutants.
Incorporation of acetate into cephalosporin C.
The isolation of cephalosporin C produced by laboratory-scale fermentations in complex media containing [1-14C]acetate is described and the results of degradations designed to provide information about the distribution of 14C in the labelled compound are recorded.
It was apparent: (1) that the capacity to produce penicillin as a metabolic product represented a group, rather than a strain or specific character; (2) that _-___ *This is one of four regional laboratories operated by the Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry, AgrmulturJ Research Administration, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
On the antibacterial action of cultures of a penicillium, with special reference to their use in the isolation of B. influenzæ
It is suggested that it may be an efficient antiseptic for application to, or injection into, areas infected with penicillin-sensitive microbes, and its value as an aid to the isolation of B. influenzae has been demonstrated.
Antibiotic production by a species of Cephalosporium.
The antibacterial activity of a strain of a Cephalosporium sp.
Identity of Cephalosporin N and Synnematin B
In 1951 work in England revealed that the Cephalosporium from Sardinia produced a family of antibiotics which could be extracted into common organic solvents, and a water-soluble antibiotic with quite different properties.
Thienamycin, a new beta-lactam antibiotic. I. Discovery, taxonomy, isolation and physical properties.
A new beta-lactam antibiotic, named thienamycin, was discovered in culture broths of Streptomyces MA4297, and subsequently determined to be a hitherto unrecognized species, is designated StrePTomyces cattleya (NRRL 8057).
Penicillin: IX. The Laboratory Scale Production of Penicillin in Submerged Cultures by Penicillium notatum Westling (NRRL 832).
This paper deals with the selection of a strain of P. notatum Westling suitable for the production of penicillin in submerged culture, and with investigations of nutrient media and culture conditions as nearly optimal as possible for this procedure.
Do we need new antibiotics? The search for new targets and new compounds
The antibiotic search includes looking for new antibiotics from nontraditional or less traditional sources, sequencing microbial genomes with the aim of finding genes specifying biosynthesis of antibiotics, analyzing DNA from the environment (metagenomics), reexamining forgotten natural compounds and products of their transformations, and investigating new antibiotic targets in pathogenic bacteria.
Cell-free ring expansion of penicillin N to deacetoxycephalosporin C by Cephalosporium acremonium CW-19 and its mutants.
Data from five mutants of Cephalosporium acremonium blocked in beta-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis support the hypothesis that penicillin N is an intermediate of cephalOSporin biosynthesis.